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Thermal Analysis of Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit: Application of Chemical Looping Combustion

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

National Institute of Technology-Prashant Kumar, MD AKRAM, Anand Shankar Singh, Sanjay S
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-1390
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
An “APU” (Auxiliary Power Unit) is a small gas turbine engine to provide supplementary power to an aircraft and is located at the tails of larger jets. APU generators provide auxiliary electrical power for running aircraft systems on the ground. Applications include powering environmental systems for pre-cooling or preheating the cabin, and providing power for crew functions such as preflight, cabin cleanup, and galley (kitchen) operation and long-haul airliners must be started using pneumatic power of APU compressor. The Honeywell 131-9A gas turbine APU has 440 kW shaft power and 90 kW electric generator consuming 120 kg fuel/hour. Here the traditional combustor of the APU is proposed to be replaced by a chemical-looping-combustion (CLC) system. CLC system consist of two reactor one is oxidation reactor (air reactor) and the other is reduction reactor (fuel reactor).The system is fluidized bed system in which activated metal-oxide(MeO) participates and circulates between the reactors .The metal-oxide (MeO) provides oxygen for combustion in the fuel reactor. The reduced metal is then transferred to air reactor before being reintroduced to the…
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Energy, Exergy and Emission Performance Analysis of Air-Film Blade Cooled Turbo Prop Turbine for Heavy Duty Cargo Aircrafts

National Institute of Technology-Sanjay S
G. L Bajaj Institute of Technology & Management-Shivam Mishra
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
In the present scenario, when the non-conventional energy resources are still under development stage for their full potential as a source of energy for our fast growing population, gas turbines are one of the most promising power generation technologies. The gas turbine based power utilities are also gaining acceptance across globe, because of increase in extraction of natural gas. Further reduction in the price of natural gas would also result in the number of gas turbine units installed across globe and thus it is important to carry out the environmental analysis of gas turbine based utilities. The gas turbines are employed in power generation in industries, aircrafts and marine propulsion units. The present exercise carries out thermodynamic performance analysis i.e. energy, exergy and emission performance analysis of an air-craft gas turbine. The gas turbine blades of present cycle are assumed to be cooled by air-film blade cooling technique. The present paper carries out the thermodynamic analysis by varying cycle parameters i.e. cycle pressure ratio and turbine-rotor-inlet-temperature. The study further investigates the cycle based on second-law…
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Influence of Crab Shell on Tribological Characterization of Eco-Friendly Products Based Non Asbestos Brake Friction Materials

National Institute of Technology-D. Lenin Singaravelu, R. Vijay, M. Rahul
Published 2015-09-27 by SAE International in United States
Eco friendly materials are highly demanded and required for brake friction applications due to its environmental friendliness, crab shell powder and palm kernel shell powders are among them. Crab shell and palm kernel shell powders are produced by grinding their shells respectively to fine mesh and for crab shell powder; it was treated with various solutions for further processing. In this present work, the friction composites are developed in the form of standard brake pads from crab shell powder following the weight percentage of 4, 8, 12 and compensated by palm kernel shell powder with a weight percentage of 12, 8, 4. The developed pads are designated as Na01, Na02, and Na03. The physical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties was characterized using IS 2742 (Part-3) and ISO-6312 Standards. The weight loss was predicted using TGA since the temperature rise during braking will rise up to 400°C. The crab shell and palm kernel shell powders were tested for TGA analysis, which shows the degradation temperature was high resulting less weight loss in case of crab shell…
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Optimization of Waste Chicken Fat Pre-Treatment Process for Biodiesel Production

National Institute of Technology-Naresh Kumar Gurasala, Arul Mozhi Selvan V, Ajay Balan, Shreyas Athreya
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Biodiesel production from the waste oils and fats are the cost effective methods and prevents the environmental pollution by proper disposal techniques. Converting waste oils/fat into biodiesel using alkaline catalyst is difficult, as it contains more than one percent Free Fatty Acid (FFA) which will form soap during the transesterification process. Hence, it is desirable to reduce the level of FFA lower than one percent for biodiesel production using the pre-treatment process. In the present research work, ferric sulfate (solid catalyst) is used as a catalyst, because it converts FFA efficiently than the homogeneous acid catalyst which is corrosive in nature and takes longer reaction time. The parameters used in the pre-treatment process are, amount of catalyst varying from 0.5 to 2% by weight, amount of methanol in moles ranging 3 to 15 to one mole of waste chicken fat (molar ratio), temperature ranges from 45°C to 65°C and the reaction time of 30 min to 150 min to find the effective conversion of FFA. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM), a statistical tool with the…
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Reduction of NOX Emission Using EGR In Biodiesel Fueled Engine With Ether Based Additives

National Institute of Technology-J. Sarangan
AVC College of Engineering-C. Swaminathan
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
This project aims to reduce the NOx emission in the diesel engine exhaust and to improve the performance of the engine. The literary survey reveals that using fuel additives, which oxygenate the fuel, reduces the emissions. In these oxygenates, ethers behave better than alcohols. In this present work, some of these ethers were selected which were not much tried and details were not much known. Diethylene Glycol Mono Methyl Ether and Diethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether are the two additives selected for this work. These additives are added with biodiesel (POME) in various proportions and it reduces the NOx emission. Initially, the engine was run by diesel, and then by biodiesel and biodiesel plus additives. The performance test was carried out in a single cylinder Kirloskar AV-I engine with and without EGR. This engine is coupled with electrical loading device. The use of biodiesel in conventional diesel engines results in substantial reduction in emission of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate. This review focuses on performance and emission of biodiesel in CI engines, and combustion analysis.
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A Numerical Integration Method for Singular Perturbation Problems

National Institute of Technology-Y. N. Reddy
Fairfield University-Rao V. Dukkipati
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A numerical integration method is developed for solving more general singular perturbation problems. Firstly, we discuss the problems with mixed boundary conditions and a left end boundary layer. Secondly, we discuss the singular-singular perturbation problems. Finally, we discuss the problems with mixed boundary conditions and a right end layer. Numerical experiments with the method for several model linear and non-linear examples with left end boundary layer or right end boundary layer are presented and compared with exact solutions.
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Studies on Esters of Sunflower Oil as Fuel for LPG Biodiesel Dual Fuel Engine

National Institute of Technology-P. Mohanan, Rana Pratap Reddy
Nagarjuna College of Engineering & Technology-Natesan Kapilan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-05-0374
Published 2004-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Korea in South Korea
The sharp escalation in the petroleum prices and the rapid depletion of non-renewable fuels have stimulated the search for alternatives to petroleum-based fuels especially diesel and gasoline. Biodiesel is one of the renewable fuels, which will be the good replacement to diesel. But as a sole fuel, it leads to slightly inferior performance and higher smoke emission due to high viscosity and carbon residue. Hence many researchers suggested that the biodiesel could be used as pilot fuel in dual fuel engine, for better performance and lower exhaust emissions. From the literature survey, it is observed that not much work has been done to use Methyl Ester (ME) of sunflower oil as pilot fuel in dual fuel mode of operation.Hence, in the present work, ME of sunflower oil is chosen as a renewable pilot fuel to run the LPG-Biodiesel dual fuel engine. In dual fuel mode operation, LPG is used as the inducted gaseous fuel. LPG has been chosen as the inducted fuel on account of its easy availability in abundance in the present time. The…