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Road Load Simulation using the MF-Swift Tire and OpenCRG Road Model

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.-Tatsuya Eguchi
TNO-Antoine Schmeitz, Willem Versteden
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
On one hand automotive manufacturers are trying to reduce product development times, while on the other hand they are aiming to bring more products to the market. Since safely and reliability must always be guaranteed, they use CAE to achieve this. For calculating road loads accurately, the tire and road model are key components of the CAE model.TNO has developed the MF-Swift tire model, which is a Magic Formula based rigid ring model. In combination with its enveloping model, MF-Swift can be used to simulate the tire dynamic response to arbitrary road unevenness. MF-Swift is aimed to be an all-encompassing tire model that can be used for handling, ride comfort and durability applications. Since it is based on Pacejka's Magic Formula, its application for handling events is well-known. Recently the OpenCRG road format has been released which makes it possible to describe large pieces of digitized 3D road surfaces in a uniform and efficient way. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the combination of the MF-Swift tire model and the OpenCRG road…
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The New High-Performance V6 Gasoline Turbocharged Engine from NISSAN

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.-Hiroyuki Ichikawa, Naoki Nakada, Junichi Yajima
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
It can be said that super sports car has a mission to drive the evolution of cars with optimizing the balance between power and environmental performances and pursuing the ultimate driving performance. Nissan has therefore developed the brand new V6 gasoline twin-turbocharged engine for a new generation of super sports cars. To achieve high environmental as well as high dynamic performance, the V6-cylinder layout was selected for its compact size and lightweight while the twin-turbocharged design was aiming for downsizing. All engine parts were designed to achieve high efficiency, as for example, the plasma-sprayed coating of the bore which improves greatly the cooling performance, or the super-heat resistant steel used for the turbocharger, which improves combustion efficiency. Thanks to this technological advance, top-level properties could be attained for sports cars in terms of fuel economy and emissions.
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Transient Analysis of the Piston Temperature with Consideration of In-cylinder Phenomena Using Engine Measurement and Heat Transfer Simulation Coupled with Three-dimensional Combustion Simulation

SAE International Journal of Engines

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.-Hideaki Mizuno, Koichi Ashida, Atsushi Teraji, Kenshi Ushijima, Shinichi Takemura
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0187
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
This study examined a method of predicting the piston temperature in reciprocating internal combustion engines with the aim of developing lightweight pistons. Since the piston temperature is strongly affected by the in-cylinder temperature distribution and turbulence, it is necessary to consider the effects of flame propagation, cooling by the intake air, temperature rise due to combustion, in-cylinder flow and the combustion chamber shape. A three-dimensional combustion simulation that can take these effects into consideration was run to calculate the heat transfer coefficient from the piston crown surface and the gas temperature. The results were used as the boundary conditions for an analysis of heat transfer from the piston, and a method was thus developed for analyzing the piston temperature. The hardness method was used to obtain the piston temperature distribution and maximum temperature during engine operation, and a comparison was made with the analytical results to examine the effects of flame propagation.
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A Study of a Multiple-link Continuously Variable Valve Event and Lift (VVEL) System

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.-Shinichi Takemura, Shunichi Aoyama
Hitachi, Ltd.-Seinosuke Hara, Makoto Nakamura
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-1719
Published 2008-06-23 by SAE International in United States
A new variable valve event and lift (VVEL) system has been developed by applying a multiple-link mechanism. This VVEL system can continuously vary the valve event angle and lift over a wide range from an exceptional small event angle and small lift and to a large event angle and large lift. This capability offers the potential to improve fuel economy, power output, emissions and other parameters of engine performance. The valve lift characteristics obtained with the VVEL system consist of a synthesis of the oscillatory motion characteristics of the multiple-link mechanism and the oscillating cam profile. With the multiple-link mechanism, the angular velocity of the oscillating cams varies during valve lift, but the valve lift characteristics incorporate both gentle ramp sections and sharp lift sections, the same as a conventional engine. This paper describes the mechanical features of the multiple-link VVEL system and performance levels attained, based on simulation data obtained at the stage of conceptualizing the fundamental principle of the system and at the stage of validating a prototype system.
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Development of Adaptive Cruise Control System Using Navigation Information

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.-Masahide Nakamura, Yoji Seto, Yoshitaka Uemura, Takuya Inoue, Shikou Den, Minoru Tamura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2008-08-0181
Published 2008-05-21 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In the recent years, the deployment of the Adaptive Cruise Control System (here after ACC)~a system that maintains a steady distance by detecting the distance between itself and the preceding vehicle through a radar sensor~is in promotion thanks to the increase of various vehicles that load this system. The current ACC still depends on the driver to make the decision for the deceleration when entering a curve or the acceleration after driving through a curve. This time we developed a system that supports the acceleration/deceleration operation at curves according to road conditions by estimating the road curvature of the preceding curve based on the information from the navigation system. In this development, we added a function to the ACC and enabled the drivers to drive at a target speed according to the road curvature.
 

A Study of a Variable Geometry System~Proposal for a Variable Geometry Vehicle (First Report)

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.-Katsunori Asogawa, Tomoki Hirabayashi, Jun Tamura, Yuusuke Minagawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2008-08-0093
Published 2008-05-21 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Electric vehicles (EVs) have been extensively researched in recent years from both environmental and energy standpoints. Steady progress is being made toward the development of practical EVs suitable for real-world driving. Vehicle electrification technologies are being researched and developed to support the operation of EVs. Notable examples include in-wheel-motor technology that positions an electric drive motor in each wheel and by-wire technology that transmits the driver's operational inputs via electric signals. These technologies offer freer layout of an EV powertrain. This paper proposes a variable geometry system as one example of a future EV system. This system was incorporated in the Pivo 2 that was exhibited at the 2007 Tokyo Motor Show. Several new forms of value provided by this system are also discussed.
 

Research on Quantification of Drivers' Risk Feelings While Car-Following Using Naturalistic Driving Data

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.-Tomohiro Yamamura, Nobuyuki Kuge
Virginia Tech Transportation Institute-Shane McLaughlin, Jonathan Hankey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2008-08-0021
Published 2008-05-21 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The drivers' risk feeling during following and approaching to a lead car was quantified using a large-scale driving behavior database of normal drivers in the real world which was obtained by the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study. Time to collision (TTC) was used as an index of drivers' risk feelings in those situations and the frequencies in different TTC levels during car following were quantified. It was also evaluated how often younger and older drivers were exposed to situations with a range of TTCs during driving.
 

Improvement of the Aerodynamic Lift Prediction Method for Passenger Vehicles Using CFD (Second Report)

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.-Kousuke Nakasato, Hiroyuki Shiozawa, Ken Nanbo
Autech Japan, Inc.-Shigeharu Nakajima, Yasushi Fuse
  • Technical Paper
  • 2008-08-0144
Published 2008-05-21 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Currently, aerodynamics lift prediction using full-vehicle CFD simulations is systematically used in vehicle development, and greatly contributes to lift reduction. The previous paper reported validation results and prediction accuracy for wind-tunnel conditions. Since then, improving analysis models has made possible lift prediction under real drive conditions. This paper presents an example of application of this method to a mechanisms study, focused on actual aerodynamic phenomena which have an influence on vehicle dynamics & driveability.
 

Development of Distance Control Assist System With Active Pedal

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.-Yasuhiko Takae, Takayuki Ida, Kazuto Sato, Yoji Seto, Takeshi Sugano, Ryota Sato, Kazunori Kurata, Masahiro Kobayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2008-08-0183
Published 2008-05-21 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The distance control assist system with an active gas pedal and a deceleration control was developed for the purpose of assisting a driver to maintain following distance to a lead vehicle. A field test was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this system. The result showed that, frequency and magnitude of deceleration by the driver were decreased, and, from the characteristics of TTC (Time to Collision) distribution, frequency of closing situations were decreased, that might contribute to the reduction of brake action by the driver. The AWWL (Adapted Weighted Workload) score on the NASA-TLX (Task Load Index) and the salivary amylase activity score were also analyzed and the results showed the decrease of driver's workload by using the system.
 

The New 50% Scale Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel With Moving Belt System

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.-Michiko Usui, Hisashi Tanaka, Akira Murata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2008-08-0146
Published 2008-05-21 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In March 2007, a new 50% scale aerodynamic wind tunnel with moving belt system was constructed for the purpose of improving vehicle aerodynamics in the real world. The new wind tunnel equipped large steel moving belt system to simulate a movement of road surface and a rotation of four wheels. In addition, the belt system made possible to examine effects of varying car posture and tandem drive with two models. This paper explains the concept, main specifications, and performance of this new wind tunnel.