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The Effect of Fuel Composition and Engine Operating Parameters on Injector Deposits in a High-Pressure Direct Injection Gasoline (DIG) Research Engine

Mobil Technology Company-Noyes L. Avery, Paul P. Wells, Richard W. Grosser
Ethyl Corporation-Allen A. Aradi
Published 1999-10-25 by SAE International in United States
The effects of fuel composition and engine operating parameters on high-pressure, direct injection gasoline (DIG) injector plugging and deposit formation have been studied. The engine used was a conventional dual-sparkplug, 2.2-liter Nissan engine modified for direct injection using one of the spark plug holes. The engine was run under 20% rich conditions to accelerate deposit formation. A ten-fuel test matrix was designed around T90, sulfur level, and olefin levels indicated in the European gasoline specifications for year 2000. The gasolines, containing no detergents, were formulated using refinery stream blends to match the specified targets. Injector flow loss was monitored by fuel flow to the engine and monitoring oxygen sensors on each of the four cylinders. The impact of fuel composition on deposit formation and injector plugging is discussed. Injector flow loss was strongly influenced by injector tip temperature. Possible causes of deposit formation were investigated through analysis of injector deposits.
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Reversibility of Sulfur Effects on Emissions of California Low Emission Vehicles

Mobil Technology Company-Charles H. Schleyer
Amoco petroleum Products-John Eckstrom
Published 1999-05-03 by SAE International in United States
The Coordinating Research Council conducted a program to measure the reversibility of fuel sulfur effects on emissions from California Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs). Six LEV models were tested using two non-oxygenated conventional Federal fuels with 30 and 630 ppm sulfur. The following emission test sequence was used: 30 ppm fuel to establish a baseline, 630 ppm fuel, and return to 30 ppm fuel. A series of emission tests were run after return to 30 ppm to ensure that emissions had stabilized. The effect of the driving cycle on reversibility was evaluated by using both the LA4 and US06 driving cycles for mileage accumulation between emission tests after return to 30-ppm sulfur fuel. The reversibility of sulfur effects was dependent on the vehicle, driving cycle, and the pollutant. For the test fleet as a whole most but not all of the sulfur effects were reversible. With the LA4 driving cycle, sulfur effects on CO and NOx were partially irreversible (approximately 79% and 84% recovery, respectively); for NMHC there was no evidence of any irreversibility (approximately 100%…
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Extended Oil Drain Performance Capabilities of Diesel Engine Oils

Mobil Technology Company-S. M. Jetter, K. J. Kelly, M. A. Ragomo
Caterpillar, Inc.-D. S. Nycz, G. M. Karl, D. F. Gullett, R. G. Dussault, B. Butler, T. H. Becker
Published 1998-10-19 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the results of a comprehensive field-testing program conducted in modern low-emission heavy-duty diesel engines to evaluate the extended oil drain capabilities of several diesel engine oils of varying performance levels. The data generated in the 59-truck trial, which was conducted over a two to three year period, provide support for extension of engine oil drain intervals when a premium mineral diesel oil is used rather than a fighting-grade mineral diesel product. The field trial results also document the performance of a premium fully synthetic engine oil at four times conventional oil drain intervals. Engine inspections conducted after 500,000 test miles confirm that the extension of oil drain intervals with premium diesel engine oils has no negative impact on engine durability. In addition to the extended oil drain interval performance, the fully-synthetic SAE 5W-40 oils evaluated were found to provide approximately a 3% reduction in fuel consumption relative to conventional SAE 15W-40 mineral oil based products in the applications tested.
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Effect of Fuel Sulfur on Emissions in California Low Emission Vehicles

Mobil Technology Company-Charles H. Schleyer
Amoco Petroleum Products-John Eckstrom
Published 1998-10-19 by SAE International in United States
The Coordinating Research Council conducted a program to measure the effect of fuel sulfur on emissions from California Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs). Twelve vehicles, two each from six production LEV models, were tested using low mileage as-received catalysts and catalysts aged to 100k by each vehicle manufacturer using “rapid-aging” procedures. There were seven test fuels: five conventional fuels with sulfur ranging from 30 to 630 ppm, and two California reformulated gasoline (RFG) with sulfur of 30 and 150 ppm. Reducing fuel sulfur produced statistically significant reductions in LEV fleet emissions of NMHC, NOx and CO. Comparing conventional fuel and California RFG at the same sulfur level: California RFG had lower NMHC and NOx emissions and higher CO emissions, but only some NMHC and NOx differences and none of the CO differences between conventional and California RFG were statistically significant.
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Advanced Synthetic Passenger Vehicle Engine Oils for Extended Oil Drain Performance

Mobil Technology Company-R. J. Bergstra, W. A. Givens, W. L. Maxwell, W. H. Richman
Published 1998-05-04 by SAE International in United States
The current trend within the automotive industry is aimed towards reducing the cost of vehicle ownership. A major area of focus is lengthening recommended vehicle service intervals. Automotive technology has now advanced to the point where, for many of today's vehicles, the first mechanical “tune-up” is not required until the vehicle has reached 100,000 miles. On the other hand, engine oil servicing is still recommended at intervals in the range of 3,000 to 7,500 miles in the North American market. Extension of oil change interval recommendations beyond 15,000 miles is now being discussed within the international automotive industry. This paper documents the development and testing of new synthetic engine oil technology under extended service intervals of up to 25,000 miles or three years. Exceptional performance has been demonstrated in industry standard North American (API) and European (ACEA) engine tests, as well as non-standard tests such as extended length engine tests, vehicle fuel economy retention tests, high mileage chassis rolls tests, and extended oil drain over-the-road vehicle tests under a wide range of driving conditions.
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