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A Synthetic Diesel Engine Oil with Extended Laboratory Test and Field Service Performance

Mobil Research & Development Corp.-S. Kennedy, M. A. Ragomo, J. R. Lohuis, W. H. Richman
Published 1995-10-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the engine test and extended oil drain field performance of new synthetic engine oil technology developed for use in North American low-emission heavy-duty diesel engines. The resulting formulation utilizes an advanced additive system specifically tailored for synthetic base stocks which exceeds current industry and engine builder targets in critical performance tests. Use of synthetic base stocks allows the formulation of engine oils with a unique combination of performance characteristics, which include meeting SAE 5W-40 viscosity requirements for cold starting benefits while maintaining low volatility loss at high temperature for oil consumption control. In addition to meeting API CG-4, CF-4, CF-2, CF, SH and EC requirements, this technology has also demonstrated exceptional performance in extended-length diesel and gasoline engine tests. Furthermore, it has also performed very well in extended service interval field tests. At drain intervals up to four times those normally recommended, excellent engine wear, deposit protection, and oil consumption control have been consistently demonstrated. Additionally, fuel economy benefits in excess of 4% relative to SAE 15W-40 conventional mineral oils have been…
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Effects of Fuel Properties on Mass Exhaust Emissions During Various Modes of Vehicle Operation

Mobil Research & Development Corp.-William J. Koehl
ARCO Products Co.-Larry A. Rapp
Published 1993-10-01 by SAE International in United States
The analysis of data from the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP) study of the effect of aromatics, MTBE, olefins, and T90 on mass exhaust emissions from current (1989) vehicles was extended to include individual vehicles during individual operating modes.The results of the modal data analysis agree with and complement results which have been reported previously by AQIRP. Beyond this, attention is focused on three fuel compositional changes where the effect on emissions shows a reversal in sign depending on the vehicle operating mode chosen.
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Improved Lubricating Greases for Aircraft Wheel Bearings

Mobil Research & Development Corp.-J.P. Doner
Published 1992-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Present day commercial aircraft wheel bearings are lubricated with greases approved under military specification MIL-G-81322 or greases developed for automotive and industrial use. Bearing builders, aircraft wheel manufacturers and airlines are seeking better greases to prolong the life of current bearings and provide protection under more severe future conditions. This paper compares laboratory test performance of current aircraft wheel bearing grease with next-generation, improved greases, demonstrating significant advantages for the new greases. Results from field tests conducted at a major commercial airline are included. The paper concludes that greases containing synthetic oils with a viscosity higher than MIL-G-81322 products are best for aircraft wheel bearings.
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Lubrication Studies in a Methanol-Fueled Spark Ignition Engine

Mobil Research & Development Corp.-W. H. Buck, J. R. Lohuls, J. A. Murphy
Published 1989-09-01 by SAE International in United States
Methanol continues to be an important alternative fuel candidate for use in spark ignition engines. In addition to its potential as an alternative energy source, methanol has been claimed to provide benefits in possibly reducing reactive hydrocarbon emissions which contribute to ozone formation. This has resulted in considerable interest in using methanol fuels in several U.S. urban areas to assist in air pollution reduction. As a result of government incentives on these issues, engine builders are now developing new generations of vehicles capable of operating on methanol. Lubrication of these engines will require methanol-compatible oil formulations. Test work has shown that some current quality engine oils, designed for use with gasoline fuel, severely limit engine durability due to excessive wear of the valve train, cylinder bore, and bearings. A laboratory engine test program using a 2.3-liter engine has been conducted to evaluate methanol-fueled engine lubrication. After establishing the performance of selected reference oils, alternate formulations have been developed providing satisfactory wear protection. Oil formulations using synthetic base stocks offer important advantages for an all-seasons oil…
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Synthetic Automotive Lubricants for Superior Low-Temperature Operation

Mobil Research & Development Corp.-J. R. Lohuis
Mobil Oil Co. Ltd.-A. J. Harlow
Published 1989-02-01 by SAE International in United States
By controlling their molecular structure, synthesized base fluids can be produced which provide optimal properties for formulating lubricants. One of these properties is outstanding low-temperature fluidity. This paper describes a range of fully synthetic automotive lubricants, including engine oil, gear oil and automatic transmission fluid, which through the use of selected synthetic hydrocarbon fluids have shown superior properties for low-temperature operation. The low-temperature benefits of these optimized synthetic formulations compared to mineral oils are demonstrated by physical property analysis, laboratory bench tests for flow, cranking and pumpability, and full-scale vehicle cold-starting tests. These results are confirmed in low-temperature operations in commercial applications.
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Synthetic Automotive Lubricants - Performance and Protection

Mobil Research & Development Corp.-K.C. Kresge, T.W. Rogers
Mobil Oil Australia, Ltd.-C.L. Martin, P.R. Wilson
Published 1987-11-08 by SAE International in United States
Automotive builders are designing future equipment for improved efficiency and greater durability. These designs will demand more performance and greater protection than ever before from the lubricants used. This paper reviews the performance available from a range of fully synthetic automotive lubricants, including engine oil, gear oil, automatic transmission fluid and grease. The development of optimized synthetic formulations to provide outstanding high temperature deposit and wear protection while maintaining excellent low temperature fluidity and pumpability, even after extended duration operation, will be discussed. The superior performance of synthetic lubricants compared to premium mineral oil lubricants will be demonstrated in a variety of laboratory equipment tests. Additionally, results will be presented from field testing under severe conditions and extended service periods in a variety of applications, including Formula 1 and Indianapolis race cars.
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Vehicle Onboard Control of Refueling Emissions — System Demonstration on a 1985 Vehicle

Mobil Research & Development Corp.-W. J. Koehl, D. W. Lloyd, L. J. McCabe
Published 1986-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Two technologies for controlling vehicle refueling emissions have been under consideration by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. They are vehicle onboard systems and Stage II service station vapor recovery. A 1978 program showed that onboard systems are very effective in controlling refueling emissions with no significant effect on exhaust emissions. The work reported herein shows that vehicle onboard technology can be applied equally well to a car meeting more stringent 1985 exhaust and evaporative emission standards with the latest engine and emission control technology. This work also shows that a vehicle onboard refueling control system can provide substantially improved control of evaporative emissions. Refueling emissions were controlled with 98+% efficiency in tests with 9-to 11.5-psi RVP fuel at 88°F, using a procedure proposed by EPA for possible use in certification testing of vehicle onboard systems. Evaporative emissions were controlled to the extent that the present 2.0 g/test standard prescribed for 9-psi RVP certification fuel was met with an 11.5-psi RVP fuel, typical of commercial gasoline. The refueling control canister can be purged faster than…
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A Comparison of Vehicle Refueling and Evaporative Emission Control Methods for Long-Term Hydrocarbon Control Progress

Mobil Research & Development Corp.-C. H. Schleyer, W. J. Koehl
Published 1986-10-01 by SAE International in United States
The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is studying the merits of four strategies to reduce hydrocarbon emissions from motor vehicles. The four strategies include onboard control of vehicle refueling emissions. Stage II controls on service stations, tightening of existing vehicle evaporative control regulations, and restrictions on gasoline volatility. In this paper, emissions reductions and costs projected for each strategy will be compared. Of the four strategies, onboard refueling controls on new cars would be the most effective in reducing nationwide hydrocarbon emissions; however, the incremental emission reduction would be relatively small compared with future reductions from controls already in place.
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Unleaded Petrol and Its Implications for the Australian Oil Industry

Mobil Research & Development Corp.-M. J. McNally
Mobil Oil Australia Limited-C. L. Martin, J. N. Bennett
  • Technical Paper
  • 852188
Published 1985-11-11 by IATO in Indonesia
In 1981 the Australian Transport Advisory Council recommended to the Federal Government that Australia adopt a nationally uniform policy requiring new passenger cars manufactured after January 1, 1986, be designed to operate on unleaded petrol and meet the equivalent of US 1975 emission standards. This paper describes the development of an Australian standard for unleaded petrol with particular relevance to the choice of key parameters such as octane rating, permissible lead content, sulphur and phosphorus content, and colour. It focuses on the major implications for the oil industry including the production of unleaded petrol to meet the standard, its storage and its distribution with particular reference to the changeover from leaded regular to the unleaded grade with nationwide supply by July 1, 1985. The implementation of new quality control procedures are described and future developments are briefly discussed.
 

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine/Fuels Combustion Performance and Emissions-A Cooperative Research Program

Mobil Research & Development Corp.-E. G. Barry, L. J. McCabe
Caterpillar Tractor Co.-D. H. Gerke, J. M. Perez
Published 1985-10-01 by SAE International in United States
A cooperative research program has been completed evaluating the impact of fuel composition (volatility, aromatics and sulfur) on the combustion and emissions performance of a Caterpillar 3406B turbo-charged diesel engine, which is representative of diesel truck engines of the late 1980s. Tests included both steady-state and transient operation measuring regulated and unregulated emissions. The fuel set was blended using only commercially available refinery stocks typical of those which could be considered for use in distillate fuel. The compositions of the blends were selected so that direct measurements of the individual effects of 10% and 90% distillation temperatures, aromatic content, and sulfur content could be made independently.Engine combustion performance data indicated that all fuels operated satisfactorily; aromatic content was as high as 50% and cetane number as low as 39. Further, the cetane number did not predict the engine measured ignition delay in this program.In steady-state emission tests, the data indicate that changes in the volatility or aromatic content had no substantial effect on particulates, smoke emissions, or gaseous emissions except NOx. Increasing aromatic content increased…
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