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Determination of Octane Index and K in a 2L, 4-cylinder turbocharged SI engine using the PRF method

Michigan Technological University-Siddharth Gopujkar, William Hansley
Michigan Tech APS LABS-Jeremy Worm
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0552
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) have traditionally been used to describe fuel anti-knock quality. The test conditions for MON are harsher than those for RON, causing the RON for a particular fuel to be higher than the MON. Researchers have proposed the anti-knock performance can be described using the Octane Index (OI), defined as OI=RON-K(RON-MON), where ‘K’ is a weighing factor between RON and MON. The K-factor indicates that at a particular operating condition, knock tolerance is better described by RON as K approaches a value of 1, and MON as K approaches a value of 0. Previous studies claim that K-factor is dependent only on the engine combustion system and the speed-load point, and that it is independent of fuel chemistry. In these studies, K was determined experimentally using linear regression. In this particular study, K was determined using the PRF method for two test fuels; EPA certification tier 2 and tier 3 fuel. K was calculated for these fuels at multiple test points and the results showed that the…
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A Connected Controls and Optimization System for Vehicle Dynamics and Powertrain Operation on a Light-Duty Plug-in Multi-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Michigan Technological University-Joseph Oncken, Joshua Orlando, Pradeep Krishna Bhat, Brandon Narodzonek, Christopher Morgan, Darrell Robinette, Bo Chen, Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0591
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an overview of the connected controls and optimization system for vehicle dynamics and powertrain operation on a light-duty plug-in multi-mode hybrid electric vehicle developed as part of the DOE ARPA-E NEXTCAR program by Michigan Technological University in partnership with General Motors Co. The objective is to enable a 20% reduction in overall energy consumption and a 6% increase in electric vehicle range of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle through the utilization of connected and automated vehicle technologies. Technologies developed to achieve this goal were developed in two categories, the vehicle control level and the powertrain control level. Tools at the vehicle control level include Eco Routing, Coordinated Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC), Eco Approach and Departure (EcoAND) and in-situ vehicle parameter characterization. Tools at the powertrain level include PHEV mode blending, predictive drive-unit state control, and non-linear model predictive control powertrain torque split management. These tools were developed with the capability of being implemented in a real-time vehicle control system. As a result, many of the developed technologies have been demonstrated in real-time…
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Optimization of Diesel Engine and After-treatment systems for a Series Hybrid Forklift Application

Michigan Technological University-Roman Maharjan
IAV Automotive Engineering Inc-Yinyan Huang, Thaddaeus Delebinski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0658
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates an optimal design of a diesel engine and after-treatment system for a series hybrid electric forklift application. A holistic modeling approach is developed in GT-Suite® to establish a model-based hardware definition for a diesel engine and after-treatment system that accurately predicts engine performance and emissions of a baseline system. The developed engine model performance is validated with the experimental data. Then, the engine design including compression ratio, boost level, air-fuel ratio (AFR), injection timing, and injection pressure is optimized at a single operating point for the series hybrid electric vehicle, while considering the performance of the after-treatment components. The engine and after-treatment models are then coupled with a series hybrid electric powertrain to evaluate the performance of the forklift in the standard VDI 2198 drive cycle. In addition, the thermal management strategies like retarding injection timing and late post-injection of fuel during cold start are analyzed and optimally selected in this work. The results show the reduction of tailpipe-NOx emission is possible by properly retarding the injection timing without significant effect on…
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Real Fuel Modeling for Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

Michigan Technological University-Hyejun Won, Youngchul Ra
Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc-Mayuri Wagh, Nahm Roh JOO, John Juriga, Philip Zoldak
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0784
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasing regulatory demand for efficiency has led to development of novel combustion modes such as HCCI, GCI, and RCCI for gasoline light duty (LD) engines. In order to realize HCCI as a compression ignition combustion mode system, in-cylinder compression temperatures must be elevated to reach the autoignition point of the premixed fuel/air mixture. 3D CFD combustion modeling is used to model auto-ignition of gasoline fuel under compression ignition condition necessitating the need for a gasoline fuel properties and chemistry model. Using the entire fuel consisting of thousands of components in the CFD simulations is computationally expensive. To overcome this challenge, the fuel is represented by few major components of the desired fuel. Real fuel modeling consists of modeling the physical properties (e.g. evaporation) using the spray model and the chemical kinetic properties (e.g. combustion) using the chemistry model. In this study, 9 variations of gasoline fuel sets were chosen as candidates to run in HCCI combustion mode. The fuels differentiate in the number and concentration of components in their surrogate models, which are between 10…
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Development of a Procedure to Correlate, Validate and Confirm Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Targets for ADAS testing.

Michigan Technological University-William Buller
Dynamic Research Inc.-Jordan Silberling, John Lenkeit
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0716
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Surrogate targets are used throughout the automotive industry to safely and repeatably test Advanced Driver Assistance Systems and will likely find similar applications in tests of driving automation systems. For those test results to be applicable to real-world scenarios, the surrogate targets must be representative of the real-world objects that they emulate. Early target development efforts were generally divided into those that relied on sophisticated radar measurement facilities and those that relied on ad-hoc measurements using automotive grade equipment. This situation made communication and interpretation of results between research groups, target developers and target users difficult. SAE J3122-1, ”Test Target Correlation – Radar Characteristics”, was developed by the SAE Active Safety Systems Standards Committee to address this and other challenges associated with target development and use. It describes standardized equipment and procedures for making various types of calibrated radar measurements using automotive grade equipment, with minimal measurement site restrictions. It also defines a correlation procedure that is used to define validity regions and properties for targets that are representative of real-world objects, a validation procedure…
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Mobile Robot Localization Evaluations with Visual Odometry in Varying Environments using Festo-Robotino

Michigan Technological University-Nathir A. Rawashdeh
German Jordanian University-Abdallah Abdo, Randa Ibrahim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1022
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous ground vehicles can use a variety of techniques to navigate the environment and deduce their motion and location from sensory inputs. Visual Odometry can provide a means for an autonomous vehicle to gain orientation and position information from camera images recording frames as the vehicle moves. This is especially useful when global positioning system (GPS) information is unavailable, or wheel encoder measurements are unreliable. Feature-based visual odometry algorithms extract corner points from image frames, thus detecting patterns of feature point movement over time. From this information, it is possible to estimate the camera, i.e. the vehicle’s motion. Visual odometry has its own set of challenges, such as detecting an insufficient number of points, poor camera setup, and fast passing objects interrupting the scene. This paper investigates the effects of various disturbances on visual odometry. Moreover, it discusses the outcomes of several experiments performed utilizing the Festo-Robotino robotic platform. The experiments are designed to evaluate how changing the system’s setup will affect the overall quality and performance of an autonomous driving system. Environmental effects such…
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Effect of Fuel Type and Tip Deposits on End of Injection Spray Characteristics of Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injectors

Michigan Technological University-Robert A. Schroeter, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Mark Meinhart
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
There has been a great effort expended in identifying causes of Hydro-Carbon (HC) and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions resulting from poor spray preparation, leading to characterization of fueling behavior near nozzle. It has been observed that large droplet size is a primary contributor to HC and PM emission. Imaging technologies have been developed to understand the break-up and consistency of fuel spray. However, there appears to be a lack of studies of the spray characteristics at the End of Injection (EOI), near nozzle, in particular, the effect that tip deposits have on the EOI characteristics. Injector tip deposits are of interest due to their effect on not only fuel spray characteristics, but also their unintended effect on engine out emissions. Using a novel imaging technique to extract near nozzle fuel characteristics at EOI, the impact of tip deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel injectors at the EOI is being examined in this work. Additionally, the impact of the test fuel used will also be evaluated. This work will present the large influence of fuel…
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Design and Validation of Low-Cost Intensity Probe

Michigan Technological University-Karan Gundre, Andrew Barnard
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Sound intensity measurement techniques that used a two-microphone configuration, were first developed in the late 1970s. Originally, the focus was on improving precision during testing or post-processing. However, with the advent of modern, sophisticated equipment, the focus has shifted to the apparatus. Availability of phase-matched microphones has made post-test correction obsolete as the microphones eliminate a majority of the errors before the data is even collected. This accuracy, however, comes at a cost, as phase-matched microphones are highly priced. This paper discusses employing the method of improving post-processing precision, using inexpensive, current equipment. The phase error of the system is corrected using a simple calibration technique and a handheld phase calibrator that is similar to the one used for amplitude calibration of microphones. The intensity probe and calibrator is manufactured using rapid prototyping and the executable software that goes with the probe is designed in NI LabVIEW. The entire setup uses inexpensive parts to lower the cost and modern software to compensate for the errors due to these parts. The design of the probe and…
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The Utilization of Onboard Sensor Measurements for Estimating Driveline Damping

Michigan Technological University-Jon Furlich, Jason Blough, Darrell Robinette
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The proliferation of small silicon micro-chips has led to a large assortment of low-cost transducers for data acquisition. Production vehicles on average exploit more than 60 on board sensors, and that number is projected to increase beyond 200 per vehicle by 2020. Such a large increase in sensors is leading the fourth industrial revolution of connectivity and autonomy. One major downfall to installing many sensors is compromises in their accuracy and processing power due to cost limitations for high volume production. The same common errors in data acquisition such as sampling, quantization, and multiplexing on the CAN bus must be accounted for when utilizing an entire array of vehicle sensors. A huge advantage of onboard sensors is the ability to calculate vehicle parameters during a daily drive cycle to update ECU calibration factors in real time. One such parameter is driveline damping, which changes with gear state and drive mode. A damping value is desired for every gear state. Recent years have seen an increasing number of forward gear ratios, from 8-10 in production vehicles.…
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Testing Methods and Signal Processing Strategies for Automatic Transmission Transient Multiplexed Pressure Data

Michigan Technological University-Mark Woodland, Jason Blough, Darrell Robinette, Carl Anderson
Ford Motor Company-Steve Frait, Ram Sudarsan Devendran
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Transmissions have multiple transient events that occur from gear shifting to torque converter clutch application. These transients can be difficult to capture and observe. A six speed front wheeled drive transmission was instrumented with pressure transducers to measure clutches and the torque converter. Due to size restrictions internal to the torque converter the data had to be multiplexed across three different transmitters. A method to capture a transient event through the use of multiplexed data was developed to create a data set with the transient event occurring on each channel. Once testing is completed, the data has to be split into individual channels and synced with the operational data. The data then can be used in both time and frequency domain analysis. It is important to understand that the data is not continuous and must be taken into consideration when post processing it for further results.
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