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Alleviating the Magnetic Effects on Magnetometers using Vehicle Kinematics for Yaw Estimation for Autonomous Ground Vehicles

Michigan Technological University-Ahammad Basha Dudekula, Jeffrey D. Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1025
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicle operation is dependent upon accurate position estimation and thus a major concern of implementing the autonomous navigation is obtaining robust and accurate data from sensors. This is especially true, in case of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor data. The IMU consists of a 3-axis gyro, 3-axis accelerometer, and 3-axis magnetometer. The IMU provides vehicle orientation in 3D space in terms of yaw, roll and pitch. Out of which, yaw is a major parameter to control the ground vehicle’s lateral position during navigation. The accelerometer is responsible for attitude (roll-pitch) estimates and magnetometer is responsible for yaw estimates. However, the magnetometer is prone to environmental magnetic disturbances which induce errors in the measurement. The present work focuses on alleviating magnetic disturbances for ground vehicles by fusing the vehicle kinematics information with IMU senor in an Extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the vehicle orientation represented using Quaternions. In addition, the error in rate measurements from gyro sensor gets accumulated as the time progress which results in drift in rate measurements and thus affecting the vehicle…
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Investigation of Diesel-CNG RCCI Combustion at Multiple Engine Operating Conditions

Michigan Technological University-Jeffrey Naber
FEV North America Inc.-Mufaddel Dahodwala, Satyum Joshi, Erik Koehler, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0801
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Past experimental studies conducted by the current authors on a 13 liter 16.7:1 compression ratio heavy-duty diesel engine have shown that diesel-Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion targeting low NOx emissions becomes progressively difficult to control as the engine load is increased. This is mainly due to difficulty in controlling reactivity levels at higher loads. For the current study, CFD investigations were conducted in CONVERGE using the SAGE combustion solver with the application of the Rahimi mechanism. Studies were conducted at a load of 5 bar BMEP to validate the simulation results against RCCI experimental data. In the low load study, it was found that the Rahimi mechanism was not able to predict the RCCI combustion behavior for diesel injection timings advanced beyond 30 degCA bTDC. This poor prediction was found at multiple engine speed and load points. To resolve this, multiple reaction mechanisms were evaluated and a new reaction mechanism, that combines the GRI Mech 3.0 mechanism with the Chalmers mechanism, was proposed. This mechanism was shown to accurately predict…
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Determination of Octane Index and K in a 2.0L, 4-Cylinder Turbocharged SI Engine Using the Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) Method

Michigan Technological University-Siddharth Gopujkar, Jeremy Worm, Joel Duncan, William Hansley
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0552
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) have traditionally been used to describe fuel anti-knock quality. The test conditions for MON are harsher than those for RON, causing the RON for a particular fuel to be higher than the MON. Previous researchers have proposed the anti-knock performance of a fuel can be described at other operating conditions using the Octane Index (OI), defined as OI=RON-K (RON-MON), where ‘K’ is a weighing factor between RON and MON, and is a function of engine operating condition. The K-factor indicates that at a particular operating condition, knock tolerance is better described by RON as K approaches a value of 0, and MON as K approaches a value of 1. Previous studies claim that K-factor is dependent only on the engine combustion system and the speed-load point, and that it is independent of fuel chemistry. In most of these studies, K was determined experimentally using linear regression. In this particular study, K was determined using the PRF method for two test fuels; EPA certification tier 2 and…
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Utilization of Vehicle Connectivity for Improved Energy Consumption of a Speed Harmonized Cohort of Vehicles

Michigan Technological University-Christopher Morgan, Darrell Robinette, Pruthwiraj Santhosh, John Bloom-Edmonds
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0587
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Improving vehicle response through advanced knowledge of traffic behavior can lead to large improvements in energy consumption for the single isolated vehicle. This energy savings across multiple vehicles can even be larger if they travel together as a cohort in harmonization. Additionally, if the vehicles have enough information about their immediate path of travel, and other vehicles’ in that path (and their respective critical forward-looking information), they can safely drive close enough to each other to share aerodynamic load. These energy savings can be upwards of multiple percentage points, and are dependent on several criteria. This analysis looks at criteria that contributes to energy savings for a cohort of vehicles in synchronous motion, as well as describes a study that allows for better understanding of the potential benefits of different types of cohorted vehicles in different platoon arrangements. The basis of this study is a precursor to developing a connected vehicle application that safely allows for fully controlled platooning on open highway for multi-destination vehicles.In this study, a set of light duty plug-in hybrid electric…
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A Connected Controls and Optimization System for Vehicle Dynamics and Powertrain Operation on a Light-Duty Plug-In Multi-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Michigan Technological University-Joseph Oncken, Joshua Orlando, Pradeep K. Bhat, Brandon Narodzonek, Christopher Morgan, Darrell Robinette, Bo Chen, Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0591
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an overview of the connected controls and optimization system for vehicle dynamics and powertrain operation on a light-duty plug-in multi-mode hybrid electric vehicle developed as part of the DOE ARPA-E NEXTCAR program by Michigan Technological University in partnership with General Motors Co. The objective is to enable a 20% reduction in overall energy consumption and a 6% increase in electric vehicle range of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle through the utilization of connected and automated vehicle technologies. Technologies developed to achieve this goal were developed in two categories, the vehicle control level and the powertrain control level. Tools at the vehicle control level include Eco Routing, Speed Harmonization, Eco Approach and Departure and in-situ vehicle parameter characterization. Tools at the powertrain level include PHEV mode blending, predictive drive-unit state control, and non-linear model predictive control powertrain power split management. These tools were developed with the capability of being implemented in a real-time vehicle control system. As a result, many of the developed technologies have been demonstrated in real-time using a fleet of…
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Optimization of Diesel Engine and After-treatment Systems for a Series Hybrid Forklift Application

Michigan Technological University-Roman Maharjan
IAV Automotive Engineering Inc.-Yinyan Huang, Thaddaeus Delebinski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0658
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates an optimal design of a diesel engine and after-treatment systems for a series hybrid electric forklift application. A holistic modeling approach is developed in GT-Suite® to establish a model-based hardware definition for a diesel engine and an after-treatment system to accurately predict engine performance and emissions. The used engine model is validated with the experimental data. The engine design parameters including compression ratio, boost level, air-fuel ratio (AFR), injection timing, and injection pressure are optimized at a single operating point for the series hybrid electric vehicle, together with the performance of the after-treatment components. The engine and after-treatment models are then coupled with a series hybrid electric powertrain to evaluate the performance of the forklift in the standard VDI 2198 drive cycle. In addition, the thermal management strategies like retarding injection timing and late post-injection of fuel during cold start are analyzed in this work. The results show the reduction of tailpipe- NOx emission is possible by properly retarding the injection timing without a significant effect on unburned hydrocarbon emissions.The designed series…
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Numerical Parametric Study of a Six-Stroke Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine Combustion- Part II

Michigan Technological University-Oudumbar Rajput, Youngchul Ra
Hyundai Motor Co.-Kyoung-Pyo Ha, Hyeon Woo Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0780
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to extend the operability limit of the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine, as an avenue for low temperature combustion (LTC) regime, the effects of parametric variations of engine operating conditions on the performance of six-stroke GCI (6S-GCI) engine cycle are numerically investigated, using an in-house 3D CFD code coupled with high-fidelity physical sub-models along with the Chemkin library. The combustion and emissions were calculated using a skeletal chemical kinetics mechanism for a 14-component gasoline surrogate fuel. Authors' previous study highlighted the effects of the variation of injection timing and split ratio on the overall performance of the 6S-GCI engine and the unique mixing-controlled burning mode of the charge mixtures during the two additional strokes. As a continuing effort, the present study details the parametric studies of initial gas temperature, boost pressure, fuel injection pressure, compression ratio, and EGR ratio. The focus of this paper is on the impact of these parameters on the performance of the two additional strokes of the 6S-GCI cycle such that the extent of controllability of ignition, combustion, and…
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Effect of Battery Temperature on Fuel Economy and Battery Aging When Using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Michigan Technological University-Jeffrey Burl
Pi Innovo-Bin Zhou, Amir Rezaei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1188
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Battery temperature variations have a strong effect on both battery aging and battery performance. Significant temperature variations will lead to different battery behaviors. This influences the performance of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) energy management strategies. This paper investigates how variations in battery temperature will affect Lithium-ion battery aging and fuel economy of a HEV. The investigated energy management strategy used in this paper is the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) which is a well-known energy management strategy for HEVs. The studied vehicle is a Honda Civic Hybrid and the studied battery, a BLS LiFePO4 3.2Volts 100Ah Electric Vehicle battery cell. Vehicle simulations were done with a validated vehicle model using multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. The battery temperature variation is studied with regards to outside air temperature. Multiple outside air temperatures are simulated, each with six ECMS penalty factors for each combination of drive cycles. Battery aging is evaluated using a semi-empirical model combined with the accumulated Ampere-hour throughput (Ah-throughput) method. The simulation results provide insight into how temperature affects the…
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Probing Spark Discharge Behavior in High-speed Cross-flows through Modeling and Experimentation

Michigan Technological University-Mary P. Zadeh, Henry Schmidt, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1120
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a combined numerical and experimental investigation of the characteristics of spark discharge in a spark-ignition engine. The main objective of this work is to gain insights into the spark discharge process and early flame kernel development. Experiments were conducted in an inert medium within an optically accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. The cross-flow motion in the vessel was generated using a previously developed shrouded fan. Numerical modeling was based on an existing discharge model in the literature developed by Kim and Anderson. However, this model is applicable to a limited range of gas pressures and flow fields. Therefore, the original model was evaluated and improved to predict the behavior of spark discharge at pressurized conditions up to 45 bar and high-speed cross-flows up to 32 m/s. To accomplish this goal, a parametric study on the spark channel resistance was conducted. Then, the parameters that best fit the experimental data were obtained using the least-squares fit technique. Results show that the model captured the spark discharge characteristics including the occurrence of the spark blowouts…
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Real Fuel Modeling for Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

Michigan Technological University-Hyejun Won, Youngchul Ra
Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Mayuri Wagh, Nahm Roh Joo, Philip Zoldak
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0784
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasing regulatory demand for efficiency has led to development of novel combustion modes such as HCCI, GCI, and RCCI for gasoline light duty (LD) engines. In order to realize HCCI as a compression ignition combustion mode system, in-cylinder compression temperatures must be elevated to reach the autoignition point of the premixed fuel/air mixture. 3D CFD combustion modeling is used to model auto-ignition of gasoline fuel under compression ignition condition necessitating the need for a gasoline fuel properties and chemistry model. Using the entire fuel consisting of thousands of components in the CFD simulations is computationally expensive. To overcome this challenge, the fuel is represented by few major components of the desired fuel. Real fuel modeling consists of modeling the physical properties (e.g. evaporation) using the spray model and the chemical kinetic properties (e.g. combustion) using the chemistry model. In this study, 9 variations of gasoline fuel sets were chosen as candidates to run in HCCI combustion mode. The fuels differentiate in the number and concentration of components in their surrogate models, which are between 10…