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External Knee Geometry Surface Variation as a Function of Subject Anthropometry and Flexion Angle for Human and Surrogate Subjects

McLaren Regional Medical Center-Scott Anseth, Thomas Raley, Norman Walter
Kettering University-Deepak Sathyanarayana, Massoud Tavakoli, Patrick Atkinson
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The current study was designed to compare the surface anatomy of the knee for different human subject anthropometries using a 3-D, non-contact digitizer which converted the anatomy into point clouds. The subjects were studied at flexion angles of 60, 90, and 120 degrees. Multiple subjects fitting narrow anthropometrical specifications were studied: 5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male. These data were then compared to a corresponding anthropometrical crash dummy knee which served as an unambiguous control. Intersubject human comparisons showed surface geometry variations which were an order of magnitude smaller than comparisons between the human and dummy knee. Large errors between the human and dummy were associated with the muscle bulk proximal and distal to the popliteal region and the rounder shape of the human knee. These data indicate that pair matching for human height and weight yields similar knee surface anatomies while there are significant variations between the human and corresponding dummy knees.
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Cervical Range of Motion Data in Children

McLaren Regional Medical Center-Christopher Van Pelt
Kettering University-Terri Lynch-Caris, Janet Brelin-Fornari
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The “Range-of Motion of the Cervical Spine of Children” study is a collaboration between Kettering University and McLaren Regional Medical Center in Flint, Michigan to quantify and establish benchmarks of “normal” range of motion (ROM) in children. The results will be analyzed to determine mean and standard deviation of degrees of rotation and used to improve the occupant protection in motor vehicles, sports equipment and benefits of physical therapy. The data will be invaluable in the development of computational models to analyze processes involving children in motion.
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An Analysis of Recent Accidents Involving Upper Extremity Fractures Associated with Airbag Deployment

McLaren Regional Medical Center-Michelle Mclean, Paul Telehowski, Imran Khan, Sidney Martin
IPAC, LLC-Theresa Atkinson
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
Prior experimental and field studies have demonstrated an increased risk of upper extremity fracture due the deployment of frontal airbags. The experimental studies provide valuable insight as to likely injury mechanisms; namely, increasing proximity increases the risk of forearm fracture. Still, field data is needed to validate these experimental findings. The available field data has largely been derived from direct case study analysis or a review of government accident statistics. In both cases, the datasets were comprised solely of pre-1995 era vehicles. Such data represents early generation airbag designs and there has been little additional study in this area. In addition, there has been an absence of fracture pattern analyses as a function of airbag deployment and non-deployment. Such an analysis would help elucidate the role of the deploying airbag on upper extremity fracture in the current fleet. In the current study we analyzed the NASS database and cases admitted to our trauma service. Our analysis shows that the forearm was fractured most frequently and that airbag deployment is associated with a 2 to 3…
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