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A Machine Learning based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for Lightweighting the Automotive Structures

Mahindra and Mahindra-Ranga Srinivas Gunti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2424
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The present work involves Machine Learning (ML) based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for lightweighting the automotive structures. The challenge in deployment of MMDO algorithms in solving real-world automotive structural design problems is the enormous time involved in solving full vehicle finite element models that involve large number of design variables and multiple performance constraints pertaining to vehicle dynamics, durability, crash and NVH domains. With the availability of powerful workstations and using the advanced Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools, it has become possible to generate huge sets of simulation data pertaining to multiple domains. In the present work, lightweigting of the vehicle structure is achieved, considered the vehicular hardpoint locations and the gages of the vehicle structures as the design variables and performance parameters pertaining to vehicle dynamics, structural durability, front-end intrusions during an IIHS offset impact test and the modal frequencies of few critical structural members as the constraint variables. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) based algorithms were used for developing the predictive models of various performance parameters. The predictive models were then used to…
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Performance Optimization of Commercial Vehicle Clutch Actuation System

Mahindra and Mahindra-Sandip Phapale
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Rapid changes in competitive automotive market trends and customer expectations have forced automobile manufacturers to offer better products with more distinctive features and improved comfort, all at a lower cost. Occupant comfort within the cabin compartment and easy operation of peripheral controls are some of the important factors under consideration while choosing the vehicle over its competition.In the clutch actuation system, the clutch pedal is the first key customer touch point between driver and vehicle transmission hence its performance is most significant to the overall quality perception and customer appeal. The effect of high clutch pedal effort of the clutch actuation system is felt by the driver during heavy traffic conditions, where frequent gear shifts are required, this becomes an annoyance to the driver decreasing his productivity. In order to afford superior comfort and a smooth clutch feel to the driver during day to day driving, there is a need to optimize the clutch actuation system performanceThe scope of this paper was to optimize the clutch pedal effort using Taguchi Method in order to meet…
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Integration of Commercial Pick Up Vehicle to Meet Pedestrian Safety Requirement

Mahindra and Mahindra-Amit Kamalakar Pathak, Mayur Rajke, Anupama Madiyan
Published 2015-01-14 by SAE International in United States
Globally, road traffic crashes kill about 1.24 million people each year. Pedestrians constitute 22% of all road deaths, and in some countries this is as high as 60%. The capacity to respond to pedestrian safety is an important component of efforts to prevent road traffic injuries. Pedestrian collisions, like other road traffic crashes, should not be accepted as inevitable because they are, in fact, both predictable and preventable. Examination of pedestrian injury distribution reveals that given an impact speed, the probability of fatal injuries is substantially greater when the striking vehicle is a pick-up rather than a passenger car. Given their utility areas, pickup vehicles require negotiating rough terrains and are therefore engineered with higher ground clearance and larger approach angle. The challenge is to optimize these design parameters and also style the vehicle for pedestrian safety while maintaining a low design cost at the same time.This document presents methodology and a set of solutions to meet pedestrian impact safety for pickup vehicles as per the guidelines recommended by Regulation (EC) No 78/2009, of the…
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Effect of Positions of Front and Rear Masses in Crankshaft Design

Mahindra and Mahindra-Ravikant Gawhade, Prafulla Ghare, V. V. Satyanarayana, Vishnu Patade
Published 2011-10-06 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
Dynamic behavior of the crank train in diesel Engine applications largely depends on the components of its mass elastic system. Linear position of individual masses and cross sectional details of these connections governs the stiffness and mass distribution. It is often difficult for crank train designer to decide the linear positions of front and rear end masses (viz. Damper pulley and flywheel) as effect of same on dynamic behavior of crank-train is not readily known.In this present work, a parametric model of crankshaft is built with different positions of damper and flywheel. Variation in important parameters like Main Journal stresses, Speed irregularity, Torsional amplitudes, Torsional mode is then monitored. Design of experiments (D.O.E) technique is used to find optimum position for both the masses. Also the trend of change in every parameter for all the iterations is investigated.This paper intends to signify the effect of damper and flywheel linear position on crankshaft torsional behavior. The aim of this study is to find out a correlation and develop an adequate estimation of torsional vibrations of a…
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Evaluating the EGR Distribution Effectiveness of Intake Manifolds by CFD Technique

Mahindra and Mahindra-Sourabh Nandi, Aditya Mulemane
Published 2009-12-13 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
This paper describes a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique for evaluating the effectiveness of an intake manifold/ EGR system. The effectiveness of the intake manifold is defined in terms of equal distribution of EGR to individual cylinders. The procedure described in this work is unparalleled, since the available testing techniques are inadequate to make measurements of the actual EGR distribution. This paper also outlines a 1D - 3D coupling approach to apply transient boundary conditions on the CFD model.As part of this study, the development of an intake manifold/ EGR system is described under different operating conditions. Different intake manifold designs are also compared. Various parameters affecting the distribution of the EGR are discussed.
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Lubricant Optimisation for Synchromesh Manual Transmission of Utility Vehicles

Mahindra and Mahindra-M. Abraham, R. Ramaprabhu
Lubrizol Limited-S. D. Evans
Published 2008-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In general the mechanical design and function of synchronized manual transmissions has remained relatively constant over the years, with incremental improvements in components, gears, bearings, seals, synchronizers and fluids continuing to advance the quality of the overall product.Marketplace demands generally drive improvements which are primarily aimed at durability and shift quality. Recently, however, advances in control and actuation technology have led to a new generation of automated manual transmissions. As a result, compatibility with electronic and valve components is becoming increasingly important. The synchronizers and fluid are two components that can affect the overall transmission performance experienced by the end user.Historically, there has been a variety of synchronizer materials, primarily brass for smaller vehicles such as passenger cars and molybdenum-based products for larger commercial vehicles. Recently sinter compositions, carbon and also phenolic materials have been used although mostly in Japan. Each composition affords the designer different wear and durability properties(1). For example, although sinter is a copper-based alloy like brass the fluid does not always respond to each in the same way. Thus, there is…
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Underhood and Underbody Studies in a Full Vehicle Model Using Different Approaches to Model Fan and Predict Recirculation

Mahindra and Mahindra-Shankar Natarajan, Aditya Mulemane, Pradip Dube
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses flow through the front end of a vehicle comprising all the underhood/underbody components. Two approaches used to model the fan to predict the front-end airflow in a full vehicle model using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are presented. The approaches discussed here are the Moving Reference Frame (MRF) model and the fan plane model. Both cold and hot flow conditions are carried out for the full vehicle model. This paper also outlines the determination of fan performance curves numerically. The data from the fan performance curves thus obtained can be used in a fan plane model. The paper also discusses two methods to determine the recirculation factor in front-end flow studies namely, the user-defined scalar (UDS) method and the heat balance method. In UDS method, the amount of air recirculating into the condenser inlet from the radiator outlet is computed using a user-defined scalar and solving for it and alternately in the case of hot flow, heat balance method is used for the same. The commercial CFD package Fluent [1] is used for…
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Numerical Approach to Determine Wind Tunnel Blockage Correction for the External Aerodynamics of a Vehicle

Mahindra and Mahindra-Pradip Dube, V. Damodaran
Published 2007-08-05 by SAE International in United States
To experimentally determine the Coefficient of Drag (CD) for a vehicle, the vehicle has to be placed inside a wind tunnel. To accurately determine the CD, the size of the wind tunnel should be large enough to capture the wake region and the turbulence regions around the vehicle. Placing a vehicle in a wind tunnel also applies an unnatural boundary around the vehicle. Determining the exact size of the wind tunnel for a particular type of a vehicle running at a particular speed or changing the size of the wind tunnel experimentally is not practical.However, we do not have such limitations on geometry or wind tunnel size while using the commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code Fluent [1]. However, using large wind tunnels in numerical studies increases the computation time exponentially.This paper presents a way to determine the wind tunnel blockage corrections that needs to be applied to find out the final CD using a smaller wind tunnel. This is achieved by repeating the simulations by increasing the size of the wind tunnel until…
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Study of Perforated Mufflers of Circular and Elliptical Cross Sections Using Parametric Technique and Finite Element Methodology

Mahindra and Mahindra-Pradip Dube, P. R. Sajanpawar
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a numerical study of reactive-type automotive mufflers. The main objective of the paper is to study the effects of various geometrical parameters on the muffler performance. Transmission losses (TL) are used to characterize the performance of the mufflers. Commercially available solver, ANSYS [1] is used to solve the muffler TL characteristics.The paper also summarizes the development of a general-purpose program capable of modeling complex muffler cavities using ANSYS parametric design language (APDL). APDL is a scripting language that is used to automate common tasks and build the model in terms of parameters.The program takes the key geometric parameters of the muffler as input variables and creates the muffler geometry, hexahedral-structured mesh, applies suitable boundary conditions, solves and then post-processes the results. The program provides good flexibility in creating complex (perforations) geometric models.Perforated type mufflers are compared with the simple expansion type mufflers. A parametric analysis is then performed on the perforated type mufflers to study the effect of perforation density, effect of partitioning perforated mufflers using baffles, effect of baffles with holes…
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