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Experimental Analysis of Combustion Noise Reduction with Performance Optimization in 110cc CVT Scooter Engine

Mahindra & Mahindra-Arun Prasath G, Saravanan Duraiarasan, R Govindarajan
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Indian two wheeler market is one of the largest and highly competitive in the world. Indian scooter segment grows at a pace of around 30% YOY. The stiff competition among OEM’s to increase the market share with fuel efficient and high performance products pushes development and calibration engineers to burn the midnight oil to concoct innovative methods to design technology boosted product. Customer expectations are always high in terms of fuel economy, drivability and NVH. Due to higher level of complexity involved in CVT (Continuously Varying Transmission) engine, it is difficult to optimize for achieving best of NVH characteristics along with Fuel Economy, drivability and reduced exhaust emission. This paper describes the experiment conducted during the development of 110cc CVT four stroke scooter engine. The development and calibration of this scooter was mainly based on real world usage pattern (RWUP).In order to obtain best performance from engine, ignition timing, fuel metering and CVT were optimized to achieve Maximum Brake Torque. With the ignition timing which can provide maximum braking torque the performance characteristics of the…
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An Experimental Comparison of the Uniformity Index for Two Dual Stage Plate Mixers in a SCR system

Mahindra & Mahindra-Prashant Kumar Sharma, Suryanarayanan Venkatachalam, Pradeep Paulraj, Vasudeo Ganesh Halbe, Senthur Pandian
Published 2015-01-14 by SAE International in United States
As the number of vehicles and environment pollution is increasing day by day, the emission regulation gets more stringent by the emission regulation authorities. Vehicle manufacturers' develop new ways and technologies to meet the norms levied for cleaner vehicles. Especially in diesel engines, NOx emissions are considered an important pollutant to be treated. In EURO 5 regulation NOx emission value is 0.18g/km for passenger cars which is further reduced to 0.08 g/km in EURO 6 regulation for diesel engines. In order to meet such stringent emission norms without compromising on engine performance, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the solution to achieve EURO 6 NOx emission levels from diesel engines.In SCR technology the reduction of NOx is done through ammonia which is injected into exhaust stream in the form of Aqueous Urea solution known as DEF. To achieve better conversion efficiency, the injected DEF has to be uniformly distributed and mixed with the exhaust stream. In this system, a mixer is used for better mixing of ammonia with exhaust stream which in turn improve…
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Oil Pump Performance Optimization for Three Cylinder Diesel Engine through Friction Reduction

Mahindra & Mahindra-S. Loganathan, M. Anand, V. Vikraman, R. Vikas
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Fuel Economy & CO2 Reduction in IC Engines is the key driving factor for the Product performance & Customer satisfaction all around the world. The Stringent CO2 Limits calls for Engine Friction Reduction, Engine Downsizing & other Alternative measures. The challenges were to measure the component level Friction Contribution on the Engine & to select the critical contribution parameter & to optimize the same. Oil pump is one such important engine parasitic load which takes up engine power through crankshaft to deliver oil flow rate according to engine demand. The proper functioning of the Oil pump is considered with required engine Oil pressure along with optimum power consumption over various operating speed and temperature. Hence the various Oil pump critical design metrics are reviewed for two cylinder Multi-jet diesel engine to have optimal power consumption and without reduction the Oil pressure at the engine oil gallery. Then the design should is validated with the engine testing against the current and optimized design to deploy the same.
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Experimental Analysis of Lead Acid Batteries for Estimating State of Charge and State of Health

Aravapalli Sriniwas, Palanivelu Prabaharan
Mahindra & Mahindra-Praveen Jarubula
Published 2013-11-27 by SAE International in United States
Batteries have become increasingly important in automotives with increase in vehicle electrical loads. Therefore the reliability of battery is a critical issue in automotive applications. It has been noticed that most batteries have limited cycle durability, that is, the total capacity drops when a battery is charged and discharged for a number of cycles. If a battery is too weak to offer sufficient energy, it should be replaced at the right time. But current problem is that there is no reliable method to quantify the capacity loss and to estimate the remaining capacity of battery. Complete discharge, which is the only way of capacity estimation, which will effect the battery plates therefore it cannot be used too frequently.This paper summarizes the experimental work in the development of the battery status estimation algorithm. The experimental work contains the battery parameterization of Lead acid batteries with different State of Charge, State of Health and in lower temperature (than room temperature) by applying worst case load in a vehicle.These experimental results can be used to estimate the status…
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Functional Safety - Progressing Towards Safer Mobility

Mahindra & Mahindra-Nandagopalan Chidambaram
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Srinival Aruapalli, Sunayana Kaushik, Abhishek Gupta
Published 2013-11-27 by SAE International in United States
Increasing complexity in E/E architecture poses several challenges in developing comfortable, clean and safe cars. This mandates robust processes to mitigate potential hazards due to malfunction of electronic systems throughout the product life cycle. With the advent of ISO 26262 [1] which provides guidelines for developing safe cars, the process is getting standardized towards safer mobility. In this paper, the functional safety process is briefly covered and a case study of Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment for specific E/E system is presented. An in-house tool developed for functional safety process and management is covered.
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Development & Customization of Test Cases for Start-stop Functionality to Achieve On-road Robustness

Mahindra & Mahindra-Nandagopalan Chidambaram
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Srinivas Arvapalli, Amit Waghmare, Palanivelu Prabaharan
Published 2013-11-27 by SAE International in United States
The Micro-hybrid technology otherwise called as stop start system offers a significant improvement in fuel economy particularly in urban driving conditions, where more often the engine idles unnecessarily at traffic signals/jams. Micro-hybrid technology stops the engine at traffic signals/jams and starts the engine automatically on clearance of traffic signals/jams leading to reduced fuel consumption and emissions. This is achieved by monitoring several vehicle and engine parameters through appropriate sensing elements.In this study, the system architecture and functional definitions of start/stop system is defined. Equivalence class, boundary value and decision-table testing are used to generate test cases. On generation of test cases, their relevance on on-road robustness and scope for optimization towards time/efforts are analyzed. In the process, a matrix of different conditions and criteria are formulated. Under these conditions, the system behavior is evaluated. It involves testing of stop release conditions, stop request conditions, start release conditions and start request conditions. The actual result of the testing is equated against the expected results.In this paper the system architecture, functionalities and definitions are briefly covered. The…
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A Simple Model for Calculating Vehicle Thermal Loads

Mahindra & Mahindra-Kaushal Kumar Jha, Viren Bhanot, Venkata Ryali
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
One of the most fundamental parameters for designing an automotive HVAC system is the thermal load, also known as cooling load. The major contributors to the thermal load inside the cabin of an automobile are solar loads, occupant loads, infiltration loads and loads due to various electrical fittings and the engine. Simple but accurate predictions of the thermal load inside the cabin will help engineers in designing and developing an efficient mobile air conditioning system.While commercial software are available for simulating these loads, such tools require tedious and time-consuming modeling of components involving many parameters as well as multiple iterations. A simple method for computation of the vehicle thermal load that requires a minimum of input parameters will be useful in situations where a full-scale analysis is not required.A computer model has been prepared for this purpose at Mahindra & Mahindra. The model calculates total thermal load by considering four major sources of heat: solar radiation, air leakage, electrical fittings and the occupants.For the solar load, the location and time specific solar irradiance (both direct…
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Test Set-Up of BIW (Body in White) Stiffness Measurements

Mahindra & Mahindra-Karan R. Khanse, Shekhar P Pathak
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
It is repeatedly proved that any minor change in the parameters involved in the test set up of BIW Bending and Torsion Stiffness evaluation changes the final test results significantly.The primary aim of the Physical Stiffness Tests, in the development stage of an Automotive Body is to ensure CAE co-relation. The setup for the physical test must therefore be designed such that the constraints match exactly with the ones in CAE. This will avoid any issues of correlating the test conditions. Any deviations in the test results between the two can then be studied separately.At first, this paper analytically deals with the mounting points that should be used on the various vehicle body types based on the different types of suspensions they employ. Based on the theoretical conditions, a practical test set-up has been derived for testing the Bending Stiffness and the Torsion Stiffness separately.The paper mainly deals with the various degrees of freedom that either need to be constrained or kept free to maintain appropriate load paths during the test. Guidelines to ensure correct…
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Structural Evaluation of Light Weight Aluminum Bedplate Design with Cast Iron Inserts through CAE for High Density Diesel Engine

Mahindra & Mahindra-Vivek H Yadav, Krishnan Karthikeyan, Rahul Murlidhar Kad, V. Vikraman
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Improving fuel economy and reducing emissions is becoming critical for future vehicles which will be lighter and faster. This demands, future engines to cater two contradictory requirements, one is high power density engine and other is lightweight compact engine design. This would require rigorous and accurate structural evaluation to achieve optimum design.Downsizing the engine is best way to achieve these goals. Three cylinder diesel engine is best suited for achieving high power and performance. It brings in challenges of design complexity due to need of balancer shaft for three cylinder engine.Bedplate evaluation becomes difficult due to design complexity induced by integration of Cast Iron inserts in Aluminum bedplate and packaging of balancer shaft. Also manufacturing process involved, operating temperatures, high combustion pressures increase the difficulties.The paper deals with methodology adopted to evaluate structural strength of Aluminum bedplate with Cast iron insert for operating loads. The approach considers material nonlinearity, temperature dependent property variation, uneven expansion and contraction, sliding interactions at the interfaces of dissimilar bedplate materials, and stresses generated due to thermo-mechanical loads. Quenching and…
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Duty Cycle Fatigue Simulation for Differential Casing

Mahindra & Mahindra-Vivek H Yadav
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Suresh Naidu Reddy
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
In the current scenario of growing demand for lightweight designs for improving fuel economy and reduced cost, the focus is on optimum design solutions. This calls for improved and accurate prediction capabilities in terms of life or cycles the design can sustain in real world usage profile. Conventionally, the differential casings are simulated and designed for worst loads experienced and the approach used is infinite life design for these loads. But, this would lead to overdesign and increase weight. To counter this problem the methodology for fatigue analysis for the derived duty cycle of differential casing is developed. The critical regions can be identified based on life and the solutions can be worked out without major design changes.This paper briefs the nonlinear static load cases required for deriving the block cycle loading and incorporating these as a duty cycle in fatigue solver. This results in identifying critical regions based on fatigue life using quasi static fatigue approach.
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