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A Study on the Repeatability of Vehicle Ride Performance Measurements

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Saravanan Muthiah
Mahindra Research Valley-Divyanshu Joshi, Shubham Kedia
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Across the automotive industries, objective measurements and subjective assessment of vehicle ride performance are routinely carried out during development as well as validation phase. Objective measurements are receiving increased attention as they are generally believed to offer a higher degree of objectivity and repeatability compared to the subjective assessment alone. Typical industry practices include the acquisition of vehicle-occupant vibrational response on specified road sections, test surfaces on proving grounds or in a controlled input environment such as four-poster test rig. In presented work, a study is performed on the repeatability of vehicle ride performance metrics such as weighted RMS acceleration and frequency responses using the data acquired in repeated trials conducted using three different sports utility vehicles (SUVs) on a sufficiently long designated road section. Intra-vehicle and inter-vehicle ride performances are compared and studied against the mentioned metrics. Results indicate a significant variability of results in repeated trials, which in few cases is found to exceed the variation across the vehicles. These variabilities can be arguably attributed to several inevitable practical constraints such as vehicle…
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A Simulation Approach for Identification and Design Optimization to Prevent Headrest Rattle

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Nithin Baskar, Riyazuddin Mohammed, Prasath R
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-26-0190
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Squeak and rattle concerns account for approximately 10% of overall vehicle Things Gone Wrong (TGW) and are a major quality concern for automotive OEM’s. Seat is one of the major contributors of squeak and rattle issues observed in customer verbatim. Seat head rest rod and bezel are designed concentric to each other with a gap that allows free movement and a locking pin to position at different levels. Due to the design gap and weight of the head rest there is always tendency for relative displacement leading to rattle issues. Seat headrest, is close to the customer ear and any rattles at headrest will create annoying driving experience. Also, the contradictory requirements between efforts and rattle makes the scenario more difficult to fine tune the bezel specifications. The root cause for head rest rattle issues can also be related to free play between bezel and seat frame, free play between bezel and cap, looseness between locking pin and headrest rod etc. Identification of issue at physical testing is common practice subject to availability of test…
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Prediction of Oil Flow inside Tractor Transmission for Splash Type Lubrication

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Tanmay Sushant Santra, Kumar Raju, Rahul Deshmukh, Udaya Paradarami, Ayush Agrawal
Mahindra Research Valley-Nagarajan Gopinathan
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
This study introduces a method to examine the flow path of the lubricant inside a transmission housing of a tractor. A typical gearbox has several loads bearing elements which are in relative sliding motion to each other which causes heat to be released. The major sources of friction as well as heat are the meshing teeth between gears (sun/planet, planet/ring & power/range drive gear), thrust washers, thrust bearings and needle roller bearings. The churning of oil performs the vital function of both lubricating these sliding interfaces and cooling these sources of heat, thereby preventing failure of the gearbox.In this paper, we have applied VOF multiphase flow model and sliding meshing to simulate the fluid flow during splashed lubrication within a mating gear box. Lubrication oil dynamics and oil surface interaction with the air is modeled using VOF multiphase approach. The gear motion is imparted through sliding mesh technique, it automatically reconfigures the mesh for the space in accordance with the rotation of physical objects, which divides the space around the gears, centering on the axis…
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Slinger Design in Live 4WD Axle for Tractor

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Navneet Chaudhari, Suvendu Kumar Sethi, Srinivasa Rao, Ramachandran Gopalswamy
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Proper lubrication is essential for any gear box & axle to get optimized performance. For getting desired life of gear train, we have to maintain minimum oil level inside the gear box or axle, whereas in case of rotating parts such as bearings and shafts, we have to provide sealing such as o rings & oil seals to stop oil coming out from the housing. But, if sealing is not proper seepage & leakage start and reduce the oil level inside the gear box. Oil deficiency leads to scuffing failure in gears and later occurrence of gear & bearing seizure ultimately fails the system.To sustain proper lubrication, we must seal the interfaces appropriately. There are different types of sealing available. Sealing is also depended on application and its location.To protect seal from external environment, we adopt a unique arrangement called slinger which enhances the life of seal.This paper speaks about this unique protection of oil seal in 4WD axle from outside contaminators such as mud, pebbles and water which should not come in contact with…
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Thermodynamic Analysis of Turbocharger for a High Power Density Diesel Engine

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Praveer Kirtimohan Jain, Chendil Pandi, Utkarsh Ravi, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, Nandhakumar Krishnan, Parag Daithankar
Turbo Energy Ltd-Ranganathan R S, Ashok Guru Sankar
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Passenger cars claim their presence in market by its pick up, top speed and maximum power of the engine. The study described in this paper is focused on improving the low-end performance of a 4-cylinder 1.6 L diesel engine while meeting the targeted maximum power.To meet the cause turbocharger works as an important element of the engine. A comparative study between regulated two stage turbocharger (R2S) and variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) shows that on a 4-cylinder engine VGT is superior by providing higher boost at 1000 engine rpm full load, than R2S, while in 3-cylinder (same displacement) the opposite effect can be seen. After simulations and iterations, it was confirmed that the in 4-cylinder the exhaust pulse cancellation were leading to a lesser exhaust energy at the turbine inlet. This pulse interaction leads to higher residual gas content which affects the low-end performance.In continuation with VGT for 4-cylinder engine several iterations were made with different compressor trims to improve the efficiency of the turbocharger which lead to 25% increment in low end torque. Also ported…
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A Test Methodology for Vehicle Wind Noise Reduction and Acoustic Quality Improvement

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Swamy Mukkera, Senthilkumar Raamya Premkumar, Deshpande Samar, Prasath R
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Aeroacoustics of vehicles is becoming an important design criterion as it directly affects passenger’s comfort. The wind noise at highway speeds (>80 KMPH) is a critical quality concern under normal and crosswind conditions and dominant factor in assessing acoustic comfort of the vehicle. Wind noise is caused by the vortex air flow around a vehicle body and air leakage through the sealing gaps of attached parts. This majorly contributes to high frequency noise (>250 Hz). Accurate identification and control of noise sources and leakage paths result in improved acoustic comfort of the vehicle.In this paper, aero-acoustic quality characteristics of validation prototype vehicle are studied. The major wind noise sources and leakage paths in the vehicle are identified through in-house blower set up in the semi anechoic room. The overall wind noise level and articulation index of vehicle at various speeds are determined through on- road measurements.The improvement in the vehicle articulation index (AI) by 14% and reduction in noise level by 4 dB (A) are achieved through design modification of seals, door structure and trim…
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Optimisation of Scooter Frame for Target Life on 2-Poster Rig with Virtual Simulation

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Vikas Palve, Shyamsundar Kumbhar, Gyanendra Roy
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle frame evaluation at early stages of product development cycle is essential to reduce product turnaround time to market. In conventional approach of virtual validation it is required to evaluate the strength of the vehicle structure to account for the standard Service Load Analysis (SLA) loading conditions. But this paper describes on the strength analysis of scooter frame with derivation of critical static load cases. The critical load cases are extracted from the load-time history while the vehicle was simulated on durability virtual test rigs which is equivalent to proving ground tests. This methodology gives the better accuracy in prediction of stress levels and avoids the overdesign of components based on traditional validation technique. There is significant drop in stress levels using the critical load case approach as compared to conventional load case method.The identified critical load cases were validated using the measured strain data and it shows good agreement of correlation with physical testing. Using this approach frame optimization is also achieved and with further validation no structural failures were seen. Hence, this approach…
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A Study on the Effect of Steering Input Frequency on Transient Lateral Dynamics of Four-Wheeled Passenger Vehicles

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Saravanan Muthiah
Mahindra Research Valley-Divyanshu Joshi, Shubham Kedia
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle lateral dynamic response parameters such as yaw velocity, lateral acceleration, roll angle, etc. depend on the nature of steering input. Response parameters vary with the amplitude and frequency of steering input. This paper deals with developing insights into the effect of steering input frequency on transient handling dynamics. For the purpose two SUV segment vehicles with similar curb weight are considered. Vehicles are given pulse inputs of the amplitudes corresponding to 4 m/s2 steady state lateral acceleration and target speeds of 80 kmph and 100 kmph, as recommended in ISO 7401:2011. Steering inputs are executed using a Steering Robot (ABD SR30). Lateral transient dynamic response gains as well as natural frequencies of yaw are studied for 0-2 Hz input frequencies. Several insights are developed, adding to the understanding of transient lateral dynamics and its relationship with steering input.
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Determination of Principal Variables for Prediction of Fuel Economy using Principal Component Analysis

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Karthick C
Mahindra Research Valley-Rohit Sai Kiran Gadde, Rajagopal Sriganesh, Santosh Lalasure, Rajakumar K
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The complexity of Urban driving conditions and the human behavior introduces undesired variabilities while establishing Fuel economy for a vehicle. These variabilities pose a great challenge while trying to determine that single figure for assessment of vehicle’s fuel efficiency on an urban driving cycle. This becomes even more challenging when two or more vehicles are simultaneously evaluated with respect to a reference vehicle. The attempt to fit a generalized linear model, between Fuel Economy as predicted variable and components of a driving cycle as predictor variables produced oxymoronic and counter-institutive results. This is primarily due to existence of multi-collinearity among the predictor variables. The context of the study is to consider the event of driving on a cycle as a random sampling experiment. The outcome of a driving cycle is summarized into a list of predictor variables or components. The aim of this study is to reduce the variables which are strongly co-related using various statistical techniques, the primary and the most effective technique being Principal Component Analysis. The selected variables or principal components are…
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Experimental Study of Friction Reduction by Reducing Piston Ring Pre-Load

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Md Tauseef Alam, Venkatesh Kumar PS, Anil Thakur, Sataya Ghadei
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
The prime objective of this study is to check the friction reduction by reducing the tangential load of the piston ring. To examine this experimental study has been carried out under motored engine condition from 500 to 4000 engine speed at the step of 500 rpm at different oil temperatures ranging from 40 °C to 120 °C. 15 W40 oil was used for this study. Standard Strip down approach was followed in accessing the Friction. The whole friction measurement was split in crank train and piston group friction and was measured with base and modified piston ring pack. The modified piston ring pack was having 24% less ring tension as compared to base ring pack. The study was carried out using block, crankshaft & Piston of 100 hp, 1.5 litre, 3 cylinder engine with 92 mm stroke and 83 mm bore. In each test ring pack was tested as a part of complete piston assembly. The result shows a maximum benefit of 6.21% & 4.7% in FMEP in piston group and crank train friction respectively…
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