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A Study of the Control Logic of Electronically Controlled Suspension for Motorcycle

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Takenori Terada, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Hideyuki Kato, Taro Iwamoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0569
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Electronically controlled suspensions are expected to improve driving performance as the damping characteristics of the suspension can be adjusted in real time to respond to road conditions. This paper reports the results of testing the suspension control logic for improving ride quality, especially when driving on rough roads, using an internally developed riding simulator.The skyhook theory is widely known as a control logic for reducing vibration when driving a four-wheeled vehicle on a rough road, which we utilized in our riding simulator to examine the vibration reduction effects when applying control logic for motorcycle suspensions. The test results show that the skyhook theory can be applied in motorcycles.However, sensors for suspension systems that can be installed in mass-produced motorcycles are severely limited in terms of cost and space. Therefore, we examined a control logic based on skyhook theory that can reduce vibration even with a simple and inexpensive sensor system.A novel control logic was successfully designed that implements the relationship between the suspension stroke speed and the vertical acceleration of the sprung mass from the…
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Improved Briles Rivet Forming Using High-Speed Force Feedback and Improved Die Geometry

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Fuminori Yano
Electroimpact Inc-Paul Haworth
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
Electroimpact and Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) have produced a new riveting process for the forming of Briles type rivets in Boeing 777 and 777X fuselage assemblies. The Briles rivet is typically used for fuselage assembly and is unique in that it has a self-sealing head. Unlike conventional headed rivets such as the NAS1079, this fastener does not require aircraft sealant under the head to be fluid tight. This unique fastener makes for a difficult fastening process due to the fact that interference must be maintained between the hole and fastener shank, as well as along the sides of the fastener head. Common issues with the formed fasteners include gapping under the fastener head and along the shank of the fastener.Electroimpact has employed a host of different technologies to combat these issues with Briles fastening. First, Electroimpact’s patented “Air Gap” system allows the machine to confirm that the head of the rivet is fully seated in the countersink prior to forming. If the fastener head is not seated prior to forming then there is no chance…
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Dynamic Stability Analysis of High-Speed Traction Drive CVT for Aircraft Power Generation

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Kippei Matsuda, Tatsuhiko Goi, Kenichiro Tanaka, Hideyuki Imai
Yokohama National University-Hirohisa Tanaka, Yasukazu Sato
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
The traction-drive integrated drive generator (T-IDG®) has been developed since 1999 to replace current hydrostatic transmission drive generators mounted on Japanese military aircraft. The T-IDG® consists of a generator and a half-toroidal traction-drive continuously variable transmission (CVT), which maintains a constant output speed of 24000 rpm, that is, a 400 Hz AC power supply. To cope with recent trends of more electric aircraft (MEA) and the need for weight reduction, a high-speed traction-drive CVT is advantageous over other transmissions. The torque on the half-toroidal variator is transmitted through multiple power rollers. The equal load sharing among power rollers is typically controlled by a mechanical hydraulic feedback system, whose stability is one of the main issues for the high-speed traction-drive CVT. Previous studies have shown that insufficient damping and stiffness of the mechanical hydraulic feedback system cause self-induced vibration. We found that the support stiffness of the variator also affects the stability of the feedback system when it is driven at a high speed. This paper describes the theoretical criteria to maintain the stability of the…
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Enhancement of Thermal Fatigue Strength by the Addition of Calcium to Hypoeutectic Aluminum-Silicon Alloys

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Kentaro Watanabe, Kojiro Motoyama, Tomokazu Watanabe, Kazuhiro Ishihara, Fujio Maeda
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Several elements affect the structure of eutectic silicon in hypoeutectic aluminum alloys [1, 2, 3, 4]. Among them, calcium has been investigated to a lesser extent compared to the typically used sodium and strontium. In order to enhance the thermal fatigue strength of a small engine, the morphology of eutectic silicon in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys is controlled by the addition of calcium. In addition, the castability and mechanical properties are investigated. Hence, samples containing different amounts of calcium are prepared at different cooling rates during solidification. The results revealed that, with the increase in the calcium amount and the cooling rate, eutectic silicon exhibits a fine morphology in cross-sectional images. Particularly, with the addition of at least 62 mass ppm of calcium in a specific range of cooling rates, refined eutectic silicon is obtained. In order to clarify additional effects of the added calcium, the amount of dissolved gas, fluidity, and porosity defects are evaluated. The amount of dissolved gas and the fluidity do not change in the range of the investigated calcium amounts. However,…
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Development of a Riding Simulator for Motorcycles

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Kazuya Nagasaka, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Akiyuki Yamasaki, Hiroshi Ishii
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
We developed the motorcycles based on RIDEOLOGY (Ride + Ideology) concept. In the past, the “Ride” was studied by a sensory evaluation with actual driving. However, the recent progress in numerical analysis, there have been developed driving simulators. It allows more quantitative measurement in a sensory evaluation. Therefore, we also developed a riding simulator specialized for motorcycles.In order to develop such riding simulator, there are some technical challenges for motorcycles. First, we need to reproduce roll motion height of motorcycles. Compared to four-wheeled vehicles, motorcycles have a higher center of rotation. Second, we need to reproduce vehicle motion control by rider’s changing body position. A rider controls vehicle’s lean by shifting his center of gravity. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a measurement system of rider’s body position. Third, we need to improve senses of speed and reality. In case of motorcycles, there is visual information of wider areas including the view near the rider’s feet. In order to reproduce that, it is necessary to develop new projection system.To solve these challenges, we developed a…
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Effects of Port Injection Specifications on Air-Fuel Ratio and Emission Behavior under Transient Operation

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Yoshinori Nakao, Yuta Uchiyama, Atsushi Hisano, Masahito Saitou, Katsumi Sobakiri
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
When an electronically controlled fuel injection device is located at downstream in intake port (hereinafter defined as downstream injection, on the other hand, upstream injection is defined as that fuel injection device is located at upstream in intake port), the possibilities of an improvement in the engine startability, increase in maximum power, and decrease in THC during warming have been reported in visualizations of the intake port. In addition, the amount of wall adhesion decreased with downstream injection in previous paper [1]. In this paper, we examine the influence on the amount of wall adhesion due to the difference in injection position on fuel transport in the intake port during transient operation and the obtained exhaust A/F and the amount of exhaust gas emitted during transient operation are evaluated. In addition, regardless of the injection position, we also grasp the general trend of the transient A/F behavior according to the transient operation such as engine revolution, the engine load, and the throttle opening after transient.Using the same intake port visualization system reported in the previous…
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Optimization of Intake Port for Improvement of Fuel Consumption and Torque

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Yota Sakurai, Yoshinori Nakao, Astushi Hisano, Masahito Saitou, Kunihiro Tanaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2017-32-0055
Published 2017-11-05 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In this study on the motorcycle engine, we investigated the geometry of the newly developed intake port with an objective of improving the fuel consumption and the torque in practical range. Herein we present the results obtained. We believe that an effective measure for achieving the stated objective is to improve the combustion speed and combustion stability. To realize that, it is necessary to increase the turbulence during combustion and improve the homogeneity of air-fuel mixture. To investigate the feasible shape of the port, the CFD simulation (including fuel spray analysis) was performed and a geometry that improved the turbulent kinetic energy and mixture homogeneity at the time of ignition was selected.For confirming the combustion improvement effect achieved by tumble strengthening, an engine test was conducted with the same amount of intake air as that used in. Analysis of the heat release rate calculated from the pressure in the cylinder revealed that an improvement in the burning rate and combustion was achieved by adopting the newly developed intake port shape. As a result of the…
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Effects of Port Injection Specifications on Emission Behavior of THC and Engine Maximum Power

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Yoshinori Nakao, Atsushi Hisano, Masahito Saitou, Kozo Suzuki, Katsumi Sobakiri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2017-32-0059
Published 2017-11-05 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In this paper, it is also elucidated that the influence of the downstream injection, which caused different fuel behavior in contrast with upstream injection, on the THC after warm-up and at the maximum power, as well as its mechanism. The mechanism is clarified by use of the intake port visualization system. First, at each injection position, the effect of injection timing on THC emission after warm-up was evaluated. In the downstream injection, THC emission increases during the injection timing, in which the fuel spray directly flows in-cylinder during the intake process (hereinafter defined as the intake valve opening injection timing), and the amount of THC emission is reduced at the other injection timing (hereinafter defined as the intake valve closing injection timing). Based on the results of visualizing the intake port, injected fuel phase near the intake valve is spray in the downstream injection. Furthermore, the high temperature intake valve immediately caused the fuel spray to evaporate at the intake valve closing injection timing and then flown in-cylinder. Next, the influences of the injection pressure…
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Development of the Compact and Light Wheel Forces and Moments Sensor for Motorcycles

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Hisato Tokunaga, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Takumi Kawasaki, Akiyuki Yamasaki
A&D Company,Limited-Tatsuo Ichige, Tomoyuki Ishimori, Yoichi Sansho
Published 2016-11-08 by SAE International in United States
Owing to the recent developments in sensors with reduced size and weight, it is now possible to install sensors on a body of a motorcycle to monitor its behavior during running. The analysis of maneuverability and stability has been performed based on the data resulted from measurements by these sensors. The tire forces and moments is an important measurement item in maneuverability and stability studies. However, the tire forces and moments is difficult to measure directly, therefore, it is a common practice to measure the force and the moment acting on the center of the wheel. The measuring device is called a wheel forces and moments sensor, and it is widely used for cars. The development of a wheel forces and moments sensor for motorcycles has difficulty particular to motorcycles. First, motorcycles run with their bodies largely banked, which restricts positioning the sensors. Second, motorcycles are lighter than cars, and a wheel forces and moments sensor may affect the motion of motorcycle. The object of this study is to develop a compact and light wheel…
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Effects of Port Injection Specifications on Emission Behavior of THC

SAE International Journal of Engines

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Yoshinori Nakao, Yota Sakurai, Atsushi Hisano, Masahito Saitou, Masahide Kazari, Takahito Murase, Kozo Suzuki
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-32-0065
Published 2016-11-08 by SAE International in United States
In port injection, it is difficult to control in-cylinder fuel supply of each cycle in a transient state as cold start (in this paper, cold start is defined as several cycles from cranking at low engine temperature). Hence, THC, which is one of regulated emission gases, is likely to increase at cold start. As one of THC emission reduction approaches at cold start, the optimization of fuel injection specifications (including injection position and spray diameter) is expected to reduce THC emission. Setting injection position as downstream position is expected to secure the in-cylinder fuel supply amount at cold start because of small fuel adhesion amount on an intake port wall and a short distance between the injection position and in-cylinder. The position injection contributes to reduction of THC emission due to elimination of misfire. Additionally, fuel atomization is also expected to effective at cold start because mixing promotion caused by fuel atomization is dominant in low engine temperature. On the other hand, the effect of injection specifications under warm-up (in this paper, the engine temperature…
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