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Torque Control of a Small Gasoline Engine with a Variable Nozzle Turbine Turbocharger

Kanazawa University-Kenichi Shimizu, Wataru Sato, Hiroshi Enomoto
Honeywell-Masahiko Yashiro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2009-32-0169
Published 2009-11-03 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The ideal torque curve of automotive engines should be high and flat from low engine speed. To achieve this, we installed a variable nozzle turbine (VNT) turbocharger to a retail natural aspirated (NA) small gasoline engine. In the VNT turbocharger, variable vanes are set around the turbine wheel and form nozzles that changed the flow velocity of the exhaust gas. The vane position was controlled to adjust intake pressure at a target. As a result, the maximum torque improved by 27% and the engine speed at maximum torque was lowered by 1550rpm. A flat torque curve was achieved from 5450rpm to 8000rpm.
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Decreasing of the Engine Idle Speed of a Small Gasoline Engine with Feedback Control

Kanazawa University-Tatsuya Fukui, Hiroshi Enomoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2009-32-0171
Published 2009-11-03 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This study proposes a method of decreasing the engine idle speed for the engine of FSAE race car. In general, the engine is controlled by map-based method. However, this method requires much time and cost to create a fuel injection map and an ignition timing map [1]. In addition to this, creating these maps at idle speed is much harder because the engine speed is cranky at idling. In this study, ON/OFF control and PID control were used for idle speed control without creating maps. As a result, idle speed was decreased drastically compared with map-based control. The PID control was able to stabilize the idling compared with the ON/OFF control.
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Effect of Seat Belt Positions on Passenger Injury during Low Speed Front-end Impact

Kanazawa University-Tatsuya Fukui, Hiroshi Enomoto, Yusuke Miyazaki, Shinobu Sakai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2009-32-0170
Published 2009-11-03 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The objective of this study was to determine the risk of injury to the driver during frontal impact in amateur car races. In this study, FSAE (Formula SAE, organized by Society of Automotive Engineers) was focused as car races for amateurs. In FSAE rules, the IA (impact attenuator) has to fulfill the requirements under frontal impact condition and the driver has to be held with appropriate safety harness positions. This study examined the driver's risk of injury with regard to head and chest acceleration, neck and femur loads, and chest displacement using MADYMO. Injury criteria were presented and compared for various impact pulse shapes (G-t curve) and belt restraint situations. As a result, the risk of serious injury is low in the impact conditions of FSAE rules.
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Development of CFRP Monocoque Front Impact Attenuator for FSAE with VaRTM

Kanazawa University-Hiroshi ENOMOTO, Yusuke MIYAZAKI, Hiroshi MIZUNO, Eiji HIRANO, Satoshi KITAYAMA, Koetsu YAMAZAKI
KADO Corporation-Naoki UOTA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2007-32-0120
Published 2007-10-30 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The Formula SAE (FSAE) rules require mounting an impact attenuator (IA) to the front part of the formula car. The IA is necessary to take fully into account not only lighter weight of the parts but also cost effectiveness as the total cost and the workability of manufacturing have much value to win the FSAE. In this paper, three different IAs, 1) a space frame structure with steel pipes (SSF), 2) a monocoque structure with aluminum (AM) and 3) a monocoque structure with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRPM), were manufactured and compared with respect to the weight and the cost effectiveness under FSAE rules. The FEM simulations for the AM were performed and the calculated results showed good agreements with the experimental ones. However, the AM could not absorb the impact energy experimentally. The CFRPM could absorb the required impact energy with lighter structure compared to other IAs. The weight was half of the experimental SSF and 1/5 of the calculated AM.
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The Package of the Turbocharged Engine for the FSAE Vehicle with the Custom Lubricant System

Kanazawa University-Hiroshi Enomoto, Hiroyuki Motoi, Kyohei Takahashi, Koichiro Saito
Honeywell-Masahiko Yashiro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2007-32-0118
Published 2007-10-30 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The turbocharged 4-stroke internal combustion engine was developed for FSAE, the annual collegiate racing competition. The dry sump lubricant system with the custom scavenge pump, KF-SC07, was designed. The crank axle height was 192mm, 76.5% of KF2004. Custom cam-shafts were designed making the torque fluctuation decreased less than 50% of KF2005. The compression ratio was changed. And the maximum boost pressure and the maximum torque gain were 25kPa (0.25 kgf/cm2) and 11%, respectively.
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Development of Electronically Controlled Shock Absorber using Magneto-Rheological Fluid

Kanazawa University-Toshihiko KOMATSUZAKI, Hiroshi ENOMOTO, Hiroshi NISHIMURA, Michinao HIRAMATSU, Yosuke FUKUNAGA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2007-32-0117
Published 2007-10-30 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The electronically controlled shock absorber with magneto-rheological fluid, KF-MRS07, was developed for the Formula SAE (FSAE), which is an annual collegiate racing competition. The KF-MRS07 has been newly developed based on KF-NS06, a mono-tube type shock absorber produced in 2006 incorporating commercial oil. The KF-NS06 is a low cost product but hard to adjust the damping property. On the other hand, the KF-MRS07 can be controlled electronically whose damping force is changeable instantaneously while running. The equivalent viscous damping coefficient, the measure for evaluating the shock absorbers, is changed about 99% with 1.0A applied current. On-track test results show that the yaw rates can be changed from an oversteer condition to an understeer one with a simple threshold control.
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Development of the Traction Control System with the Custom Electrical Control Unit for the Formula SAE Car

Kanazawa University-Hiroshi ENOMOTO, Hitoshi NAKAO, Yosuke FUKUNAGA, Taira MAEDA
Honda R&D Co. Ltd.-Toshiyuki SAKAI, Masahiro KONTANI
  • Technical Paper
  • 2007-32-0119
Published 2007-10-30 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The Traction Control Systems (TCS) for the FSAE car were developed with the Fuel/Ignition Cut (FIC) method and the Ignition Retard (IR) method. A slip speed was used for the TCSs and a custom Engine Control Unit (KF-ECU07) was developed with commercial devices. With the FIC TCS, the engine was stalled and the IR TCS worked better. KF-ECU07 was 7.6% of the commercial high-quality ECU in price and contributed to the cost event point gain in FSAE. The driver load was evaluated with the duration ratio of the partial throttle aperture. The duration ratio of the partial throttle aperture was 52% with the IR-TCS compared with 64% without IR-TCS and 19% driver load was decreased.
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A Study on Development of a Human Pelvis FE Model by Applying in-vivo CT Information of the Human Coxal Bone

Kanazawa University-Jiro Sakamoto, Yukihiro Yukita
Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI)-Cheolwoong Ko, Atsuhiro Konosu
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Construction of a human pelvis finite element (FE) model with high bio-fidelity is a crucial step for achieving reliable prediction of pelvis injury due to impact loadings. Several human pelvis FE models have previously been developed and improved to investigate pelvis injury mechanisms. However, an important aspect to directly acquire heterogeneous bone material properties from in-vivo computed tomography (CT) information has not been extensively studied. In this research, a new human coxal bone FE model was constructed from in-vivo CT scans of a Japanese adult (age 25, 173 cm, 60 kg). And, heterogeneous material properties such as Young’s modulus and yield stress were deduced from in-vivo CT information of the Japanese coxal bone by using the relationship between CT Hounsfield value and bone density, in an effort to apply the obtained in-vivo material properties for a human pelvis FE model.
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