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Effects of EGR on Knock-Level of Small Spark Ignition Engine with Gasoline-Base Kerosene-Mixed Fuel

Kanazawa Univ.-Hiroshi Enomoto, Hirotaka Nozue, Noboru Hieda
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In emergency, it is not easy to get enough fuel for generator and the usage of kerosene with small spark ignition engine for normal gasoline was investigated. As too much kerosene will cause knock, EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) system was used to reduce the knock strength. The displacement was 290cc and the compression ratio was 8.4. The knock strength was evaluated with a highpass-filtered strain sensor and 0.6V was measured at MBT (Minimum advance for Best Torque) with normal gasoline, 1800rpm, 10Nm. The engine speed was almost 1800±100rpm and the torque was almost 10±0.1Nm. As a result, the EGR system could reduce the knock strength in any kerosene mixture fuel with the control of the ignition timing.
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Small Kerosene Droplet Evaporation Near Butane Diffusion Flame

Kanazawa Univ.-Hiroshi Enomoto, Shogo Kunioka, Lukas Kano Mangalla, Noboru Hieda
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
An experimental study has been conducted at small kerosene droplet behavior near well-defined butane diffusion flame for the critical need on high efficient and cleaner energy technology. High temperature of background gas was generated using butane flame. Microflame from butane can reach the maximum temperature around 1200K at tip of outer glass. Single droplet of kerosene was injected by a small injector tube (30 μm-diameter) in to hot environment. Droplet of kerosene was released by attachment of piezo actuator on wall injector. Once the droplet is exposed to the hot atmosphere of micro flame, the temporal regression of the droplet surface was recorded. Droplet diameter was observed by CCD camera with strobe light flash at 180ns. The images captured in this experiment were analyzed by post-processing software to determine the vaporization of droplet. Temperature of background gas was measured by K-type thermocouple and speed of droplet released from injector was also measured to investigate the effect of relative velocity between droplet and background gas. The result shows that the linear changing point of droplet diameter…
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Behavior of Small Fuel Droplet near Butane Diffusion Flame

Kanazawa Univ.-Hiroshi Enomoto, Shogo Kunioka, Noboru Hieda
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In this paper, droplet behavior near diffusion flame was observed. Single droplet was created by thin glass tube and piezo device which pushes the side of glass tube. Dispersions of droplets location near diffusive flame were compared to droplets with no flame condition. CCD camera, strobe light with 180nsec flash time and lens of ten magnification were used for observation. Droplet pictures were taken with resolution of 0.46um/pix. As a result, droplets near diffusive flame tend to increase its dispersion of location as approaching tip of the flame. Stefan flow caused by evaporation and turbulence outer flow can be thought as causes.
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Effects of Spark Ignition Timing on Exhaust Gas Component and Temperature with Wood Biomass Gasifier

Kanazawa Univ.-Hiroshi Enomoto, Hirotaka Nozue, Noboru Hieda
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Small wood biomass gasifier was developed and co-generation system supplying electric power and heat with small spark ignition internal combustion engine (SI-ICE) was investigated. The balance of electric power and heat flux will be controlled with ignition timing and the exhaust gas components were discussed. The wood biomass gasifier (downdraft type) had 105mm in inner diameter and 1000mm in length and the reaction zone temperature was 900deg-C at 68NL/min in intake air flow. The SI-ICE had 290cc in displacement and 8.4 in compression ratio and was driven at 1500rpm. The ignition angle was changed from 30deg-BTDC to 25deg-BTDC with almost same exhaust gas components. The exhaust gas temperature was from 520deg-C to 555deg-C.
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Observation of Kerosene Droplet Evaporation under High Pressure and High Temperature Environment

Kanazawa Univ.-Hiroshi Enomoto, Shunsuke Sawasaki, Kosuke Nishioka, Lukas Kano Mangalla
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In this study, the background gas of the droplet vaporization was concerned and simulated numerically using ANSYS fluent code. The new type, engine-like, condition of high pressure chamber and high temperature environment was considered to conduct experiment on kerosene droplet evaporation. 2D geometry of domain simulation was discretized in the very fine quadrilateral meshes. The numerical approach was solved using implicit scheme of compressible gas solver (density based). Temperature dependent properties of air are expressed for gas material properties. As the study concerning on high pressure condition the equation state of Peng-Robinson was expressed in simulation. Governing equations of mass, momentum and energy were solved by the second order upwind for flow, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate. Standard k-ε model was used to solve turbulence flow in the spatial discretization. The effects of the non-ideal gas phase behavior were found to be important for prediction background gas of droplet vaporization especially in high pressure environment. It can be concluded that we can predict the environment of high temperature and high pressure condition, however…
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Spray Characteristics of Local-Contact Microwave-Heating Injector Fueled with Ethanol

Kanazawa Univ.-Lukas Kano Mangalla, Hiroshi Enomoto
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A microwave-heating system is integrated in a port-injector to minimize the cold-start problems and exhaust emissions of engine. This paper report the experimental investigations of spray characteristics and numerical simulation of fuel temperature inside port-injector. Fuel flow inside port-injector is heated using microwave-heating and this system is called “local-contact microwave-heating injector” (LMI). LMI can be used to increase temperature of ethanol near boiling point (351.5K) before injected into room temperature. Injection pressure of fuel was operated constant at 0.3MPa. Characteristics of fuel spray were observed experimentally using high speed camera, CMOS camera and LDSA. Numerical simulation was conducted to verify the effect of local heating on spray distribution. 2-D geometry of injector with finer quadrilateral mesh (56,000 meshes) was solved numerically on pressure based solver in CFD simulation code. Conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy were modelled on time dependent using Pressure-Implicit with Splitting of Operation (PISO) algorithm. The result shows good agreement between numerical and experimental measurement of temperature distribution. An increasing of fuel temperature inside port injector is considerably improving Sauter Mean…
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Overview of Autonomous Vehicle of Kanazawa University Exhibited in Tokyo Motor Show 2011~2nd Report, Obstacle Detection for Urban Environment Using Omi-Directional Laser Range Finder

Kanazawa Univ.-Takahiro Uozumi, Naoki Suganuma, Takato Kakehi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2012-08-0076
Published 2012-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The Tokyo motor show was held in December 2011 in Tokyo. In the Tokyo motor show 2011, a themed event named The SMART MOBILITY CITY was held to exhibit some next-generation vehicles. In the event, a special test course was made and some autonomous vehicles were exhibited from five domestic organization. Additionally, except for some organization, autonomous driving vehicle which passengers rode on was demonstrated. The authors have developed some technologies to achieve autonomous driving in urban environment up to now; autonomous driving supposing urban environment was demonstrated in the event. For such autonomous vehicles, it is important to detect small obstacles such as curb stone, and it is also necessary to recognize drivable area in omni-direction not affected by occlusions. In this report, we propose obstacle extraction method based on Occupancy Grid Maps to overcome these problems.
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Posture and Size Estimation of Moving Object with In-Vehicle Multilayer Lidar

Kanazawa Univ.-Naoki Suganuma
Doshisha Univ.-Masafumi Hashimoto, Satoshi Yamamoto, Kazuki Taki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2012-08-0355
Published 2012-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This paper presents a method of posture and size estimations of moving objects with in-vehicle multilayer lidar. Moving objects are detected based on a 2D occupancy grid method from the lidar image, and they are classified into pedestrians or vehicles based on their estimated velocities. Matching of tracked objects and measurement clusters related to the moving objects are achieved via a rule-based data association. The postures (position and velocity) of the moving objects are estimated by Kalman filter, and their sizes are estimated based on volume of the associated measurement cluster. The experimental results in urban city environments validate the proposed method.
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Overview of Autonomous Vehicle of Kanazawa University Exhibited in Tokyo Motor Show 2011~ 1st Report, Path Planning for Obstacle Avoidance of Autonomous Vehicle

Kanazawa Univ.-Naoki Suganuma, Uozumi Takahiro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2012-08-0075
Published 2012-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The Tokyo motor show was held in December 2011 in Tokyo. In the Tokyo motor show 2011, a themed event named The SMART MOBILITY CITY was held to exhibit some next-generation vehicles. In the event, a special test course was made and some autonomous vehicles were exhibited from five domestic organization. Additionally, except for some organization, autonomous driving vehicle which passengers rode on was demonstrated. The authors have developed some technologies to achieve autonomous driving in urban environment up to now; autonomous driving supposing urban environment was demonstrated in the event. In this report, we introduce system overview of an autonomous vehicle exhibited in the Tokyo motor show 2011. Moreover we propose real-time trajectory generation method for autonomous vehicle.
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Effect of Cylinder Diameter of Monotube-Type MR-Damper on the Damping Force Changing Ratio and the Response Time

Kanazawa Univ.-Hajime Komatsu, Hiroshi Enomoto, Toshihiko Komatsuzaki, Kohei Izumi
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
MR-damper (Magneto-Rheological fluid damper) is used an actuator with high speed in response to control the movement of four-wheel vehicles. In this paper, performances of two MR-dampers were measured. These dampers had difference in diameter of cylinder, length of piston and orifice. These changes will influence the damping force, the damping force change ratio and the response time of damping force change. As a result, a larger damper showed 1.4 times damping force change ratio of smaller one and shorter response time in compression.
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