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Industry 4.0 in Agriculture

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Vishal Eknath Kirve
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2442
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In recent times, there has been an enormous shift towards automation in Auto as well as Agriculture Industry. Farming is playing an important role in the survival of world. Currently, agricultural industry is facing several challenges. These challenges can be reduced or removed by using automation in the agricultural tools and techniques. Industry 4.0 is the industrial fourth revolution which focused on automations in manufacturing technologies such as cyber physical systems, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and cloud and cognitive computing. The development and improvement of the connectivity between agricultural tools is leading to significant progress in the agricultural practices. Advancement and automation of the technologies with Internet of Things (IoT), replacing traditional agricultural methodologies which causes wide range of improvements in the fields. The main purpose of this paper is focused on the review of basic concept of Industry 4.0, the number of new tools and techniques used by smart agriculture for the improvement in the fields and the list of benefits of smart agricultural solutions. Smart Agriculture is using advanced technologies such as…


John Deere India Pvt Ltd-amol pimpale, pankaj vaste, rohit pawar
John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Prashant Bardia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2421
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
KEYWORDS: Steering System, Engine Vibrations, Dynamics, Modal Testing, Modal Analysis, ABSTRACT - In modern agriculture, the tractor’s use is indispensable and essential for various operations like cultivation, soil preparation, pulverization and many more. However, despite being efficient machines, tractors may be subjected to different level of vibrations in various parts of their structure. The vibration often plays the key cause of invalidation and component failures and also, affecting the ride and comfort. Since it is known that such vibration factors can affect the behavior in many ways, an understanding of their dynamic response is warranted. In this paper, case study related to reduction of steering system vibration is presented. Objective and Background: Vibration reduction is linked with the reduction either at source or on path. For such, it is necessary to know the reality of machines, component and mechanisms to mitigate the vibration levels on the tractor. From the testing and analysis of the components, it is possible to calculate the dynamic properties and vibration average level. The vibration reduction decreases the damages caused by…

CFD Simulation on turbulent forced convection of CuO-Water Nanofluids in a horizontal circular pipe

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Nitin Dewangan, Nitin Kattula
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0131
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The present study provides a detailed investigation on simulation of Copper oxide nanofluids in a simple horizontal circular pipe considering turbulent forced convection, with a constant heat flux boundary condition. The simulation is carried out using three different models available in fluent viz. Newtonian single phase model, Eulerian-mixture and Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase models. The Reynold number of the flow is varied along with volume concentration of nanoparticles varying from low to high. Nanofluids rheology is studied by considering standard k-ε two equation turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment considering appropriate wall y+ values. The effective temperature dependent thermo-physical properties for nanofluids were seized from the literatures. The results from the simulation clearly showed an increase in the heat transfer characteristics with the addition of nanofluids compared to that of base fluid alone. Eulerian-Mixture model predicted the Nusselt number near to that of the experimental results from literature. Index terms: Nanofluids, copper oxide, heat transfer, simulation, Nusselt number.

Role of Dynamic Stiffness in Effective Isolation

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Balavardhan Reddy Dasabai
Deere & Company-Yuzhen Yang
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
In any machinery, avoiding noise and vibration completely is a difficult task due to the structural dynamic behaviors of components. To safeguard the operator, it is important to best isolate the operator station from NVH environment. Cabin isolation is an important aspect to minimize structure borne noise and tactile vibrations to be transferred into the cabin. Isolators are selected based on the isolation system inertial properties at mounting locations in the operating frequency range interested. The most important assumption to select isolators are that the active side and passive side of the isolators are nearly rigid so impedance mismatch is created for effective isolation.This paper describes the importance of dynamic stiffness of the structures on both the active and passive side for better NVH performance. NVH performance of passive side is evaluated analytically and computationally in terms of tactile vibrations and structure borne noise for various ratios of the dynamic stiffness over isolator stiffness. The isolator selection criterion is also discussed based on rigid body modes, operating frequency range, transmissibility ratio, and kinematic energy distributions.
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Stabilizer Foot Optimization for Backhoe Loader

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Sandeep D Dhotre, Gurwinder Singh
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-26-0104
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Continuous improvement and weight reduction are key contributors to success of most of the Product Engineering Organizations. This helps to keep the product competitive in market from cost, weight and performance stand point. It needs to be ensured to have enough strength in the structures to support the external loads along with quality requirements. This can be ensured by removing material from redundant zones and provide it at necessary areas carrying loads.In current paper, author covers information about utilization of topology optimization tool to achieve the weight reduction and in turn cost reduction to contribute in the organizations Value Improvement efforts.Stabilizer foot optimization is an opportunity explored in construction vehicle (Backhoe). Current stabilizer foot is a common design across multiple models that range in performance and weight capability. The stabilizer foot function is to stabilize the machine transferring the load from the backhoe through to the ground surface. The foot is also used as a primary vehicle lifting point. Machine performance varies 40% from the largest to smallest models which presents an opportunity to develop…
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Cost Controlling Methodology: Design to Cost

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Himanshu Sharma
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Current Global Economic scenario is driven by high quality and innovative products and services available at lower cost. With the volatility in the cost drivers market of 3M’s (man, material and manufacturing), Industry needs a methodology which can control cost and assists in increasing research and development efficiencies, robust quality, shared volumes for lower cost and investment, aligned manufacturing sequences and a consistent customer experiences across Global market. This Paper uses the ideology of design to cost as its basis, since a substantial portion of the product’s cost is dictated by decisions with regards to its design. Design to cost is a management strategy and supporting methodologies to achieve an affordable product by focusing on target cost as an independent design parameter that needs to be achieved with the development of a product. The approach emphasizes on Customer Affordability and Competitive Pricing with balance in Product Features. It is a trade-off between cost and performance for competing product alternative at the early stage of the design process. The process/approach aids in evaluation of how the…
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Framework Standard for Prognosis: An Approach for Effective Prognosis Implementation

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Sanket Pawar
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Prognosis is used to improve system availability. This is achieved by minimizing system downtime with the help of mechanisms that senses the degradation in the system health to predict the ‘time-to-failure’ of the system. Degradation in the system’s health is measured by sensing the early signs of aging and wear and tear of the system components. This requires knowledge of all the failure modes of the system along with patterns of behavioral changes in the individual components of the system while it continues to age.Prognosis methods and mechanisms are still evolving. So, no comprehensive guidelines or framework standards exist as of today that can provide reliable and standardized prognosis solutions to the end user customers. The intent of devising such a framework and guidelines is to improve and standardize the implementation of prognosis solutions so that; it will be more effective to all stakeholders from the perspective of safety, cost and convenience.At present, there is a lot of variation in the implementation of a prognostic mechanism, although having well developed methods for the same. This…
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An Investigation on Articulation Dynamic Loads of Construction Equipment

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Chandrashekar Ramanna Ananthpur, Mukunthan Saravanan
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Wheel loaders are heavy earth moving machines used in construction field for applications like truck loading, stockpiling and various other material handling operations. Wheel loaders are classified according to their operating weight and pay load capacities in the construction equipment market. Wheel loaders are equipped with articulated steering using two hydraulic cylinders connecting the front and rear frame. The speed of steering is controlled by the steering control valve, which controls the hydraulic oil flow rate to the steering cylinder. The expansion and retraction of the two cylinders make the wheel loader to articulate with pin joint connecting the frames. During articulation of the machine, the front and rear frames hit against each other inducing a system (Impact) force. The system force caused due to the steering influences the operator comfort, stability and durability of the structural components in the machine. It becomes important to understand these system loads amplitude for a vehicle configuration. This paper attempts to investigate the system forces triggered on the frames during the steering operation. This study focuses on hydraulic…
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Progressive Worst Case Scenario Analysis: Improving Functional Safety by Bridging Gaps in FMEA for Effective Implementation of ISO 26262

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Sanket Pawar
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
Reliability engineering methods are used to assess risk and eliminate hazards by estimation, elimination, and management of risks of failures. The ISO 26262 functional safety standard gives detailed guidance on reliability engineering methods like Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) [7], Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) [8] [2], and etc. While, there are many methods available for reliability engineering; no single method is foolproof for securing safety by eliminating hazards completely. Out of these methods, FMEA is widely being used as an integral part of the product development life cycle [10]. In this method, failure modes of individual components are analyzed considering one failure at a time. FMEA is an efficient method for analyzing failures in simple systems. For complex systems, FMEA becomes impractical. It is also difficult to consider variables in FMEA.FMEA provides fairly detailed recommended action items to avoid failures and eliminate hazards in average working conditions [3]. But, when exposed to worst case situations, FMEA recommended action items fail to avoid failures in a system. While designing a product, many times it is…
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Electrical System Load Management for High Power Work Lights Using Light Type Detection through Signature Recognition Technique

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Sanket Pawar
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
Work lights with high power rating consume high current. Since the battery voltage is fixed, high currents are needed to generate the necessary power (wattage). This makes it difficult to manage the load on the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) responsible for controlling the work lights and also on the entire electrical system of the vehicle. It is possible to prevent the system from getting over loaded by employing effective means of work light control techniques. These techniques differ based on the type of work lights connected on the vehicle.There are three types of work lights available in the market. Halogen work lights, High Intensity Discharge (HID) work lights and Light Emitting Diode (LED) work lights. HIDs are not preferred by most customers due to their high warm up times & cost/unit. The other two types of lights, i.e. LED & Halogen, are comparatively less expensive. They also need negligible warm up times which are not objectionable to the vehicle operators. Due to these aspects, LEDs or Halogen work lights are provided as the default option…
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