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Routing Methods Considering Security and Real-Time of Vehicle Gateway System

Infineon Technologies AG-Karel Heurtefeux
FESCARO-Daehyun Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1294
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Recently, vehicle networks have increased complexity due to the demand for autonomous driving or connected devices. This increasing complexity requires high bandwidth. As a result, vehicle manufacturers have begun using Ethernet-based communication for high-speed links. In order to deal with the heterogeneity of such networks where legacy automotive buses have to coexist with high-speed Ethernet links vehicle manufacturers introduced a vehicle gateway system. The system uses Ethernet as a backbone between domain controllers and CAN buses for communication between internal controllers.As a central point in the vehicle, the gateway is constantly exchanging vehicle data in a heterogeneous communication environment between the existing CAN and Ethernet networks. In an in-vehicle network context where the communications are strictly time-constrained, it is necessary to measure the delay for such routing task. In addition, due to the cyber-security risk, the security functions to ensure the integrity of the message has to be considered.This paper investigate the delay impact of the gateway routing of CAN frames considering security. In case of security, the CMAC is used to guarantee the integrity…
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Hardware Supported Data-Driven Modeling for ECU Function Development

Infineon Technologies AG-Klaus Scheibert
ETAS Inc.-Tobias Gutjahr
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1366
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The powertrain module is being introduced to embedded System on Chips (SoCs) designed to increase available computational power. These high-performance SoCs have the potential to enhance the computational power along with providing on-board resources to support unexpected feature growth and on-demand customer requirements. This project will investigate the radial basis function (RBF) using the Gaussian process (GP) regression algorithm, the ETAS ASCMO tool, and the hardware accelerator Advanced Modeling Unit (AMU) being introduced by Infineon AURIX 2nd Generation. ETAS ASCMO is one of the solutions for data-driven modeling and model-based calibration. It enables users to accurately model, analyze, and optimize the behavior of complex systems with few measurements and advanced algorithms. Both steady state and transient system behaviors can be captured. The AMU computation engine is a floating-point unit designed to speed up the performance of critical applications by off-loading the computation from the central processing unit (CPU). This paper will share insight of addressable applications in automotive with focus on powertrain by utilizing ETAS ASCMO to provide the RBF model for the microcontroller integrated…
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Smart 24 V Battery Switch for a Reliable Redundant Power Supply in Commercial, Construction, and Agriculture Vehicles (CAV)

Infineon Technologies AG-Vincent Usseglio, Andre Mourrier
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
For highly automated driving, commercial vehicles require an Electric/Electronic (E/E) architecture, which - in addition to sensor fusion - ensures safety-critical processes such as steering and braking at all times. Among other things, a redundant 24 V supply with corresponding disconnection is required. The battery switch is a key component. Commercial, construction, and agricultural vehicles (CAV) need to operate at the highest possible availability and the lowest possible cost of ownership. This is why automated and autonomous driving has the potential to revolutionize the CAV sector. Driverless machines can be operated around the clock and almost non-stop. Platooning allows automated, interconnected trucks to drive in a convoy and very close to each other. Platooning saves fuel. The North American Council for Freight Efficiency has calculated the following:In a scenario with two virtually connected trucks, the fuel consumption of the front vehicle is reduced by 4.5%, and by 10% in the rear vehicle, due to reduced aerodynamic drag on all of the vehicles.In a scenario with three connected trucks, platooning even leads to an average savings…
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High Performance Processor Architecture for Automotive Large Scaled Integrated Systems within the European Processor Initiative Research Project

Infineon Technologies AG-Udo Dannebaum, Michael Scheffer
BMW AG-Dominik Reinhardt, Matthias Traub
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous driving systems and connected mobility are the next big developments for the car manufacturers and their suppliers during the next decade. To achieve the high computing power needs and fulfill new upcoming requirements due to functional safety and security, heterogeneous processor architectures with a mixture of different core architectures and hardware accelerators are necessary.To tackle this new type of hardware complexity and nevertheless stay within monetary constraints, high performance computers, inspired by state of the art data center hardware, could be adapted in order to fulfill automotive quality requirements. The European Processor Initiative (EPI) research project tries to come along with that challenge for next generation semiconductors.To be as close as possible to series development needs for the next upcoming car generations, we present a hybrid semiconductor system-on-chip architecture for automotive. This microprocessor is inspired and derived from HPC architecture of the European Processor Initiative research project.Furthermore we suggest a possible future architecture for high performance automotive microprocessors integrated on an automotive computing platform. We describe our architectural hardware approach for a generic high…
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Leveraging Hardware Security to Secure Connected Vehicles

Infineon Technologies AG-Martin Brunner, Udo Dannebaum
AUDI AG-Christopher Corbett, Karsten Schmidt, Rolf Schneider
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Advanced safety features and new services in connected cars depend on the security of the underlying vehicle functions. Due to the interconnection with the outside world and as a result of being an embedded system a modern vehicle is exposed to both, malicious activities as faced by traditional IT world systems as well as physical attacks. This introduces the need for utilizing hardware-assisted security measures to prevent both kinds of attacks.In this paper we present a survey of the different classes of hardware security devices and depict their different functional range and application. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach by conducting a case study on an exemplary implementation of a function-on-demand use case. In particular, our example outlines how to apply the different hardware security approaches in practice to address real-world security topics.We conclude with an assessment of today’s hardware security devices. Based on our presented case study we outline the identified gaps and derive the necessary future developments for next-generation hardware security devices to meet the requirements for automotive applications.
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Redundant and Diverse Magnetic Field Digital Linear Hall Sensor Concept for ASIL D Applications

Infineon Technologies AG-Wolfgang Granig, Friedrich Rasbornig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Mario Motz, Thomas Zettler, Michael Strasser, Alessandro Michelutti
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Functional safe systems fulfilling the ISO 26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications where additional redundant and diverse functionality is needed for higher rated ASIL levels. This can result in a very complex and expensive system setup. Here we present a sensor product developed according ISO 26262. This sensor product comprises a two channel redundant and also diverse implemented magnetic field sensor concept with linear digital outputs on one monolithically integrated silicon substrate. This sensor is used for ASIL D applications like power-steering torque measurement, where the torque is transferred into a magnetic field signal in a certain magnetic setup, but can also be used in other demanding sensor applications concerning safety. This proposed and also implemented solution is beneficial because of implementation on a single chip in one single chip-package but anyway fulfilling ASIL D requirements on system level. The realized aspects of redundancy and diversity as well as the proof to fulfill these safety-requirements are presented in the paper chapters.
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Over the Air Software Update Realization within Generic Modules with Microcontrollers Using External Serial FLASH

Infineon Technologies AG-Axel Freiwald
Infineon Technologies Americas Corp.-Atilla Bulmus, Chris Wunderlich
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Connecting mobile communication channels to vehicles’ networks is currently attracting engineers in a wide range. Herein the desire of vehicle manufacturers to remotely execute software updates over the air (SOTA) within electronic control units (ECU) is probably the field of highest attention at the moment.Today software updates are typically done at vehicle service stations and connection the vehicles electronic network via the onboard diagnosis (OBD) interface to a service computer. Herby the duration of the update is invisible to the user, as this happens during standard service appointments. With introduction of SOTA, these updates become very convenient to the customer and can lead to higher customer satisfaction levels. SOTA can be made transparent to the user however the method of implementation can affect the user experience. Currently the range of solutions for data storage to address SOTA ranges from: 1Central Storage Approach whereby external Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) at this device and distributed via the internal car networks to the respective module to be updated.2Localized storage external to the Microcontroller of the device being updated.3Localized storage…
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Cyber Security in the Automotive Domain – An Overview

Infineon Technologies AG-Martin Klimke, Udo Dannebaum
AUDI AG-Rolf Schneider, Andre Kohn
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Driven by the growing internet and remote connectivity of automobiles, combined with the emerging trend to automated driving, the importance of security for automotive systems is massively increasing. Although cyber security is a common part of daily routines in the traditional IT domain, necessary security mechanisms are not yet widely applied in the vehicles. At first glance, this may not appear to be a problem as there are lots of solutions from other domains, which potentially could be re-used. But substantial differences compared to an automotive environment have to be taken into account, drastically reducing the possibilities for simple reuse. Our contribution is to address automotive electronics engineers who are confronted with security requirements. Therefore, it will firstly provide some basic knowledge about IT security and subsequently present a selection of automotive specific security use cases.
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Markov Chain-based Reliability Analysis for Automotive Fail-Operational Systems

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

,

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Infineon Technologies AG-Antonio Vilela, Udo Dannebaum
AUDI AG-Andre Kohn, Rolf Schneider
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0052
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
A main challenge when developing next generation architectures for automated driving ECUs is to guarantee reliable functionality. Today’s fail safe systems will not be able to handle electronic failures due to the missing “mechanical” fallback or the intervening driver. This means, fail operational based on redundancy is an essential part for improving the functional safety, especially in safety-related braking and steering systems. The 2-out-of-2 Diagnostic Fail Safe (2oo2DFS) system is a promising approach to realize redundancy with manageable costs. In this contribution, we evaluate the reliability of this concept for a symmetric and an asymmetric Electronic Power Steering (EPS) ECU. For this, we use a Markov chain model as a typical method for analyzing the reliability and Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) in majority redundancy approaches. As a basis, the failure rates of the used components and the microcontroller are considered. The comparison to a non-redundant system shows a significantly higher reliability and MTTF of the redundant approaches.
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Calculation of Failure Detection Probability on Safety Mechanisms of Correlated Sensor Signals According to ISO 26262

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Infineon Technologies AG-Wolfgang Granig, Dirk Hammerschmidt
Alpe-Adria University Klagenfurt-Hubert Zangl
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0015
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Functional safe products conforming to the ISO 26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications wherein electronic takes more and more response for safety relevant operations. Consequently safety mechanisms are needed and implemented in order to reach defined functional safety targets. To prove their effectiveness diagnostic coverage provides a measurable quantity. A straight forward safety mechanism for sensor systems can be established by redundant signal paths measuring the same physical quantity and subsequently performing an independent output difference-check that decides if the data can be transmitted or an error message shall be sent. This paper focuses on the diagnostic coverage figure calculation of such data correlation-checks for linear sensors which are also shown in ISO 26262 part5:2011 ANNEX D2.10.2. This principle is widely used in automotive application like magnetic field sensing for steering-torque measurement, position detection of throttle-valve or current sensing of actuators. It is shown how the diagnostic coverage figures can be derived based on statistical evaluation using different typical failure-probability distributions of the analog and digital elements of the sensor systems. The…
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