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Lightweight Wheel Bearing with Dissimilar Materials for Vehicle

Iljin Global-Inha Lee, Seonho Lee, Heechan Shim, Jungyang Park
Hyundai Motor Group-Jaehee Lee
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Limited fossil fuel resources, air pollution, and global warming all drive strengthening of fuel economy and vehicle emission standards globally. Much R&D continues to be dedicated to improve fuel efficiency of automobiles and to reduce exhaust gasses. These include improvement of engine/driveline performance for higher efficiency, development of alternative energy, and minimization of air resistance through aerodynamic design optimization. OEM weight reduction-focused research has extended into chassis components (steering knuckle, brakes, control arms, etc.) in sequence from body-in-white(BIW). Wheel bearings, one of the core components of a driveline and part of a vehicle’s unsprung mass, are also being required to reduce weight. Conventionally, wheel bearings have achieved “lightweighting” primarily through design optimization methods. They have been highly optimized today using steel based materials. Opportunities for further mass optimization are increasingly limited and so the focus of this study is integration of lighter-materials into steel bearing components for weight savings. Both aluminum and CFRP were considered in the study for partial integration into the steel hub flange which interfaces directly with the wheel. The application of…
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Study on Application Methods to Mitigate Galvanic Corrosion between Wheel Bearing and Aluminum Knuckle

Iljin Global-Sewoong Kim, Seonho Lee, Hyounsoo Park
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The substitution of aluminum for steel is an effective weight reduction solution where the application permits it; aluminum knuckles have been widely used for this reason. However, when an aluminum knuckle is assembled with the steel outer-ring of a wheel bearing without any means for galvanic corrosion prevention, the aluminum knuckle may severely corrode. Galvanic corrosion products can make it difficult to remove a wheel bearing from the aluminum knuckle during vehicle maintenance. Prevention of this problem is the focus of this paper. In this study, several concepts were examined to prevent or mitigate galvanic corrosion between a wheel bearing and its mating aluminum knuckle. One set of concepts involves using surface treated metal sleeves (using ferritic nitro-carburizing or a special coating). The sleeves were then inserted onto the outer-ring diameters of the wheel bearings prior to assembly into the steering knuckle. Another set of concepts that were investigated involves the application of thin coatings having high anti-corrosion properties. The coatings were applied directly to the bearing outer-ring knuckle piloting surfaces and bearing knuckle mounting…
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Development of a Low Friction High Performance Wheel Bearing Seal

Iljin Global-Yongwon Kim, Chae Yeong Cha, Seonggyu Jin
ILJIN USA Corporation-Seungpyo Lee
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The ever tightening of fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards globally continues to challenge bearing companies toward lower torque, lower mass products. This paper focuses on improving fuel efficiency by considering the torque of automotive wheel bearing seals. This study establishes the level of drag torque reduction achieved through the structural design of the bearing seals. Wheel bearing seals are a critical component that must pass stringent torque, water exclusion, and other critical OEM and supplier performance specifications. They are designed as non-serviceable and must maintain full performance through the life of the vehicle.As a result of the application of specialized structural design, the drag torque, per the study, is reduced by more than 50% compared to existing bearing specifications. Electric vehicle companies are also seeking low friction wheel bearing solutions to further reduce CO2 (indirect or wheel-to-wheel) emissions. This research findings can assist the OEM’s in meeting the rigid emissions and fuel economy standards through drag reduction in the wheel bearings.
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Bearing Life Evaluation for Automotive Wheel Bearings Using Design of Experiments

Iljin Global-Seungpyo Lee
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Automotive wheel bearings have primary functions of translating the rotating motion of the wheels into linear vehicle motion while bearing the vehicle weight. Bearing life is affected by many parameters such as bearing geometry, vehicle and bearing technical specifications, driving conditions, lubrication conditions, material properties, and so on. In this paper, both the basic bearing rating life and modified bearing rating life were evaluated using design of experiments. Bearing lives were calculated by the international standard, and the factors affecting bearing life were investigated. Sequential experimental designs were applied. First, screening experiments were performed to analyze the factors affecting bearing life. Next, confirmation experiments were carried out to determine accurate effects of the selected factors from the screening experiments. As a result, contact angle and curvature of inner ring were significant at a 95% of significance level.
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Numerical Study on Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Ventilated Brake Disc Connected to a Wheel

Iljin Global-Yunho Jung, Honglae Kim, Seungpyo Lee
Hyundai Motor Co.-Hee Yeol Kim
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
The role of a brake disc is to convert the kinetic energy of automobiles into thermal energy caused by friction between the brake pads and disc surfaces. The braking performance of an overheated disc is decreased due to hot judder and fade. Hence, the cooling technology of a brake disc is one of the most important issues related to automobile safety. In the present study, the fluid flow and heat transfer analysis of a ventilated brake disc are conducted numerically. Some geometries of automotive parts such as bearings, hubs and wheels are considered in this study. The commercial code ANSYS CFX is used to simulate the fluid flow and the conjugate heat transfer which includes conduction and convection. To evaluate the cooling performance in each case, the results, including the flow patterns of cooling air inside the wheel and the heat transfer coefficient distribution at the disc surfaces, were investigated and compared for various disc-hub combinations.
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Performance Prediction of Automotive Wheel Bearing Seals

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Iljin Global-Seungpyo Lee, Mincheol Park
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2525
Published 2017-09-17 by SAE International in United States
The primary functions of bearing seals are to prevent lubrication from escaping and foreign material from entering, the effectiveness of which is determined by the design of the seal lips. Bearings with low friction rotation are in great demand in the automotive market as a direct result of enforced vehicle fuel economy and reduced CO2 emissions regulations. Therefore, bearings with good sealing function and low friction rotation are required. This makes designing a seal challenging as the ideologies of high seal-ability and low friction rotation tend to be contradictory. Current estimations of bearing seal friction or rotational torque require significant time and cost through empirical methods of trial and error. Research into the estimation of bearing rotational torque through numerical analysis, based on finite element methods, is the focal point of this paper. This development includes the calculation of bearing rotational torque using an axisymmetric model from the commercial software, ABAQUS. The seal rubber material properties were analyzed using hyperelastic methods for increased accuracy followed by seal rotational torque being calculated using the analysis results…
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A Bearing Endurance Life Prediction Method Considering the Bearing Dynamic Characteristics

Iljin Global-Seungpyo Lee, Younggeol Cho
Haneol Solution-Kyeongdeok Yang
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A rotating bearing must have an excellent durability life. Various studies have been conducted for a long time to predict the bearing durability life. However, the bearing durability life has been predicted by an analytic formula in terms of the raceway and ball. A finite element structural analysis has been carried out for a flange, commonly with an assumption of a static load. So it is difficult to consider the dynamic effects (Centrifugal force, Gyroscope effect) of the bearing, which is very important due to its high speed operation.In order to predict the accurate bearing durability life, the dynamic effects must be considered. This paper proposes a method for bearing durability life prediction, considering dynamic effects. Contact between the raceway and ball is one of the important factors to take into account for the dynamic effects of the bearing. General surface to surface contact method is not appropriate for the bearing analysis because it produces a noisy and spiky contact force. This research develops a specialized contact algorithm for a bearing analysis to efficiently obtain…
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Nano Surface Modification of Hub Bearing Race Ways for Increasing the Dynamic Load Rating and Decreasing the Friction Loss

Iljin Global-S. G. Jin, J. G. Moon
DesignMecha R&D Center-Inho Cho, C. S. Kim
Published 2007-08-05 by SAE International in United States
UNSM technology increases surface hardness, induces a large amount of compressive residual stress in the subsurface, refines the grain size into 50∼200 nm, and modifies the surface into micro dimple structure which reduces the friction coefficient about 50% simultaneously. In order to show the possibility of weight and friction reduction at Hub bearing application, hardness, roughness, residual stress, surface topology, friction coefficient and wear rate are compared before and after UNSM treatment of test specimens. Two type of rolling contact fatigue test and pin-on-disc test are carried out for test specimens. Finally dynamo test of hub bearing assembly is being carried out. Test results show that UNSM technology can reduce the weight and friction loss of hub bearing and is very effective technology for fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of vehicle.
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Deformation Analysis and Optimization of an Automotive Wheel Bearing Seal Lip

Iljin Global-Young Tae Kim, Jihun Park, Jong Soon Lim
Kangwon National University-Heon Young Kim, Hyungil Moon
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Wheel bearing seals are required to have strong sealing capabilities and low reaction forces because the bearing operates in extreme environments such as mud and water. And the design technology for wheel bearing seals is closely related to the efficiency and durability of the entire bearing. If the bearing seal performance can be estimated and used in the design procedure, more efficient and durable bearing seals can be produced. The bearing seal performance is strongly dependent on the shape of the bearing seal lip, so the optimization of the bearing seal design is more efficient if the design factors of the seal lip are known in advance. In this study, deformation patterns of seal lips are predicted by finite element analyses considering nonlinear characteristics of rubber material, and the shape is optimized using experimental design method applying parameters obtained from the analyses.
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