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Analysis of Fast Charging Station Network for Electrified Ride-Hailing Services

Idaho National Laboratory-Yutaka Motoaki, John Smart
Argonne National Laboratory-Zhi Zhou
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Today’s electric vehicle (EV) owners charge their vehicles mostly at home and seldom use public direct current fast charger (DCFCs), reducing the need for a large deployment of DCFCs for private EV owners. However, due to the emerging interest among transportation network companies to operate EVs in their fleet, there is great potential for DCFCs to be highly utilized and become economically feasible in the future. This paper describes a heuristic algorithm to emulate operation of EVs within a hypothetical transportation network company fleet using a large global positioning system data set from Columbus, Ohio. DCFC requirements supporting operation of EVs are estimated using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool. Operation and installation costs were estimated using real-world data to assess the economic feasibility of the recommended fast charging stations. Results suggest that the hypothetical transportation network company fleet increases daily vehicle miles traveled per EV with less overall down time, resulting in increased demand for DCFC. Sites with overhead service lines are recommended for hosting DCFC stations to minimize the need for trenching underground service…
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Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

Idaho National Laboratory-Matthew Shirk
Intertek Testing Services NA, Inc-Jeffrey Wishart
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level two electric vehicle supply equipment, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kilowatt fast charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals throughout on-road mile accumulation. Battery tests performed include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests.The data collected over 50,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed.…
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Extended Range Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in the EV Project

Idaho National Laboratory-John Smart, Warren Powell
ECOtality North America-Stephen Schey
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
ECOtality North America, OnStar, and the Idaho National Laboratory have partnered to collect and analyze electronic data from Chevrolet Volts enrolled in The EV Project, which is a large-scale plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure demonstration being conducted in 21 metropolitan areas across the United States. This paper presents results of an early analysis of these data. The data set analyzed came from 923 privately owned vehicles, which logged over 4.7 million driving miles from October 2011 to October 2012. These data are used to identify the potential of electric vehicle (EV) mode driving, based on driver and charging behavior.Driving and charging behavior is quantified with metrics such as daily vehicle miles traveled, number of charging events performed per day, and distance driven between consecutive charging events. Drivers averaged 40.7 miles per day, with a median of 31.6 miles per day. Vehicles were charged 1.46 times per vehicle day driven on average, with a median of 1 charging event per day driven. This results in an average of 27.9 miles between consecutive charging events and a median…
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Long-Term Validation of Rapid Impedance Spectrum Measurements as a Battery State-of-Health Assessment Technique

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Idaho National Laboratory-Jon P. Christophersen
Montana Tech. of Univ. of Montana-John L. Morrison, William H. Morrison
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1524
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study was to assess the long-term capability and impact of a rapid, in-situ impedance measurement technique known as Harmonic Compensated Synchronous Detection. This technique consists of a sum-of-sines excitation signal that includes a targeted selection of frequencies and only requires one period of the lowest frequency. For a given frequency range of 0.1 Hz to approximately 2 kHz, the measurement duration would only be ten seconds. The battery response is captured and synchronously detected for impedance spectra measurements. This technique was compared to laboratory-based performance degradation measurements using commercially available lithium-ion cells. The cells were aged for 150,000 cycles at accelerated rates using temperatures of 40 and 50°C. Every 30,000 cycles, cycle-life testing was interrupted to gauge degradation at the reference temperature of 30°C. The results demonstrated that growth in the ohmic and charge transfer resistances during aging strongly correlate with the corresponding changes in discharge capacity, pulse resistance, and available power capability that were independently determined from standardized test methods. Additionally, the rapid impedance spectrum technique appears to be a…
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Rapid Impedance Spectrum Measurements for State-of-Health Assessment of Energy Storage Devices

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Idaho National Laboratory-Jon P. Christophersen
Montana Tech of Univ of Montana-John Morrison
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0657
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Harmonic Compensated Synchronous Detection (HCSD) is a technique that can be used to measure wideband impedance spectra within seconds based on an input sum-of-sines signal having a frequency spread separated by harmonics. The battery (or other energy storage device) is excited with a sum-of-sines current signal that has a duration of at least one period of the lowest frequency. The voltage response is then captured and synchronously detected at each frequency of interest to determine the impedance spectra. This technique was successfully simulated using a simplified battery model and then verified with commercially available Sanyo lithium-ion cells. Simulations revealed the presence of a start-up transient effect when only one period of the lowest frequency is included in the excitation signal. This transient effect appears to only influence the low-frequency impedance measurements and can be reduced when a longer input signal is used. Furthermore, lithium-ion cell testing has indicated that the transient effect does not seem to impact the charge transfer resistance in the mid-frequency region. The degradation rates for the charge transfer resistance measured from…
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Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Idaho National Laboratory-John Smart
ECOtality North America-Stephen Schey
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0199
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
In 2010, a large-scale plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and led by ECOtality North America. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America and General Motors to deploy up to 8,300 Nissan LEAF™ battery electric vehicles and Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicles, along with approximately 14,000 AC Level 2 and DC fast-charging units in 18 metropolitan areas across the United States.ECOtality and the Idaho National Laboratory partnered to collect and analyze electronic data from EV Project vehicles and charging units. An early analysis of data from Nissan LEAFs enrolled in The EV Project was performed. The data set analyzed came from 2,903 privately owned vehicles, which logged over 10 million driving miles in 2011. On average, Nissan LEAF drivers drove 6.9 miles per trip and 30.3 miles per day. Median values were 4.0 and 26.8 miles, respectively. In environments without many public charging locations, LEAF drivers averaged 28.8 miles…
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Report on the Field Performance of A123Systems’ Hymotion™ Plug-In Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius

Idaho National Laboratory-John Smart
A123 Systems-Huang-Yee Iu
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
A123Systems’ Hymotion™ L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion module is a lithium ion battery pack with ∼5.0 kWh of capacity. It recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system was designed to more than double the Prius’ fuel efficiency for 30 to 50 km of charge depleting range. The Hymotion L5 PCM is the first commercially available aftermarket product complying with NHTSA impact standards.Since 2006, over 50 initial production Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Modules have been installed in private fleet vehicles across the United States and Canada and monitored for performance. With the help of the Idaho National Laboratory, which conducts the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), A123Systems collected and analyzed real-time vehicle data from each fleet vehicle. This paper presents the results of this field evaluation.
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Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Activities

Idaho National Laboratory-James Francfort
Electric Transportation Applications-Don Karner
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity teamed with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Public Service to develop and monitor the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant. The Pilot Plant provides 100% hydrogen, and hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG)-blended fuels for the evaluation of hydrogen and H/CNG internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in controlled and fleet testing environments. Since June 2002, twenty hydrogen and H/CNG vehicles have accumulated 300,000 test miles and 5,700 fueling events. The AVTA is part of the Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These testing activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper discusses the Pilot Plant design and monitoring, and hydrogen ICE vehicle testing methods and results.
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Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing

Idaho National Laboratory-James Francfort
Electric Transportation Applications-Don Karner, Ryan Harkins
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts baseline performance and fleet testing of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on seven HEV models and accumulated 1.4 million fleet testing miles on 26 HEVs. The HEV models tested or in testing include: Toyota Gen I and Gen II Prius, and Highlander; Honda Insight, Civic and Accord; Chevrolet Silverado; Ford Escape; and Lexus RX 400h. The baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed track testing to document the HEV's fuel economy (SAE J1634) and performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model are driven to 160,000 miles per vehicle within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events, and fuel use is recorded and used to compile life-cycle costs. At the conclusion of the 160,000 miles of fleet testing, the SAE J1634 tests are rerun and each HEV battery pack is tested. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory, Electric Transportation Applications, and Exponent Failure Analysis Associates.…
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