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Diesel Vehicle with Ultra-Low NOx Emissions on the Road

IAV-Frank Bunar, Joachim Spitta, Andreas Kuhrt
AECC-Joachim Demuynck, Cecile Favre, Dirk Bosteels
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The gap between diesel vehicle emissions in laboratory tests compared to those in use has been addressed by the introduction of the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) requirements. Modern diesel technology now demonstrates low emissions on the road over a wide range of driving conditions. This paper further demonstrates that consistent low nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particle number (PN) emissions can be achieved over a wide range of driving conditions beyond Euro 6d RDE requirements, with emission control technologies combined in an integrated approach.An LNT (Lean NOx Trap) is combined with a dual-dosing SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system. Low-load NOx control is achieved by the LNT in combination with a close-coupled SCR coated on the Diesel Particulate Filter (SDPF). High load conditions, on the other hand, are covered by the underfloor SCR system with a second AdBlue® injector. A P0 48V mild-hybrid system is also available to support the NOx control and to ensure good driving performance and fuel efficiency. An advanced control strategy is implemented to ensure optimal interaction between all emission control functionalities. The…
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Estimation of the Clutch Characteristic Map for an Automated Wet Friction Clutch Transmission

IAV-Alex Tarasow, Guido Wachsmuth, Roland Serway
Clausthal University of Technology-Thorsten Arndt, Christian Bohn
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Higher demands on comfort and efficiency require a continuous improvement of the shift process. During the launch and shift process the clutch control is used to get a smooth and efficient behavior. In this short time of acting the shifting behavior can be rated. Many control concepts use a clutch characteristic to calculate the actuator signal based on the clutch torque. Therefore, a high quality of this characteristic is necessary. Because of the dynamic process during clutch engagement the clutch characteristic needs further information to reach a high accuracy for the control algorithm. In this paper an existing clutch torque characteristic is extended to a characteristic map where the clutch torque becomes a function of the current actuator signal of the clutch and the clutch slip. The extension of the torque characteristic describes the slip based dependencies, e.g. the friction coefficient. The model of the characteristic map consists of the multiplication of two separate functions in these two dimensions. The parameters of this model are estimated using different identification algorithms, in this case a non-linear…
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Diesel CNG - The Potential of a Dual Fuel Combustion Concept for Lower CO2 and Emissions

IAV-Hans Juergen Manns, Maximilian Brauer, Holger Dyja, Hein Beier, Alexander Lasch
Published 2015-01-14 by SAE International in United States
Future regulations for passenger cars will no longer focus on emission reduction only but also on reducing CO2. The use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in combustion engines is one solution which provides benefits in CO2 and in pollutant emissions at the same time. The conversion of Gasoline engines to CNG operation is well known. In this paper however - the operation of a passenger car diesel engine in Diesel - CNG dual fuel mode is investigated.The paper describes the experimental setup and measurement procedure that was chosen to assess combined Diesel - CNG combustion. Results for emissions, fuel economy (CO2), engine noise and combustion stability will be presented for three different operating points on a research single cylinder engine.Special focus lies on the partially/unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions which are typically high when CNG is well premixed and burning in a globally lean combustion environment. Usable CNG / Diesel mixture ratios are discussed for different load points with respect to the tolerable HC emissions and exhaust temperature level at the Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Finally…
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A Post-Catalyst Control Strategy Based on Oxygen Storage Dynamics

IAV-Michael Tomforde, Matthias Schultalbers
University of Rostock-Wolfgang Drewelow, Bernhard Lampe
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
For compliance with future more stringent emission standards exhaust emissions must be reduced. One possibility is to improve air-fuel ratio control quality. The approach presented in this paper uses virtual sensors to get a rough picture of the spatial distribution of lambda and oxygen storage states across the catalyst. This additional process information is gathered by means of a novel model for three-way catalysts. A state-space controller is used to maintain oxygen storage states predicted by the model at desired levels. The proposed control strategy has been implemented on a turbocharged, direct injection engine and successfully validated by means of emission measurements. A comparison with a commonly used air-fuel ratio control strategy is presented.
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Investigation of VVA-Based Exhaust Management Strategies by Means of a HD Single Cylinder Research Engine and Rapid Prototyping Systems

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

IAV-Alexander Rempel, Peter Eckert
Technische Universität Braunschweig-Sebastian Gehrke, Dávid Kovács, Peter Eilts
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0587
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Heavy-Duty (HD) diesel engines fulfill the current NOx limits by a sophisticated combination of in-cylinder technologies and an aftertreatment system. In the face of current testing cycles with low average load and efficiency/CO₂ demands measures for the provision of an adequate exhaust temperature become a development core.An alternative to common exhaust management strategies could be variable valve actuation (VVA). Hence a self-developed camless valve actuation system was implemented on a single-cylinder research engine to investigate potential strategies. As these investigations require an appropriate test bench setup the paper consists of two parts. The first part describes the design process of the test bench and focuses on the Rapid Prototyping Systems (RPS) that enabled its operation. The second part discusses the results of different VVA-based exhaust management strategies and gives an outlook to further investigations.
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Onboard Optimisation of Engine Emissions and Consumption According to Diesel Fuel Quality

SAE International Journal of Engines

IAV-Thaddaeus Delebinski
SP3H-Eric Hermitte, Alain Lunati
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1694
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
In response to the demand to lower CO2 emission, all engine developers face the challenge of drastically reducing fuel consumption. At the same time, they will need to meet future exhaust emission legislation by simultaneously employing internal measures and after treatment systems.Additionally, they will have to deal with increasing fuel variability. As different properties can lead to very different behavior in engine operation, information onboard the vehicle providing the fuel composition would allow to adjust engine operating parameters accordingly, to make the most beneficial use of the available fuel quality. This will be obvious considering future diesel fuels blends, or the ever increasing amount of biodiesel content mixed into Diesel fuel, but could already be interesting considering existing fuel variability faced in Europe or America.In this context, an innovative Fuel Quality Sensor technology [1] [2] has been developed: it provides detailed information about the molecular structure of the diesel fuel flowing to the engine as well as its biodiesel content.In the context of the presented study, a matrix of 10 diesel fuels representative of real…
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Doppler Global Velocimetry Measurement of Charge Motion Inside Piston Bowl of a Motored Diesel Engine and Correlation to CFD Results

IAV-Roland Deepe, Wolfgang Tschiggfrei, Thomas Seidel, Carolus Gruenig, Christian Schramm
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Charge motion inside the piston bowl is an important parameter in the development of the combustion process of DI Diesel engines. To snapshot this charge motion at the start of injection or the start of combustion, normally CFD simulation has traditionally been used. The use of CFD tools has provided some insight into the combustion process and therefore has shortened the development process of piston engines. To achieve a better understanding of the parameters which influence a low emission diesel-combustion the virtual approach needs hardware assisted validation. A test method has been developed to measure charge motion inside the piston bowl of a motored diesel engine at TDC using laser based Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The use of this new measurement approach is versatile. Investigations can be conducted on charge motion caused by variation of compression ratio and piston bowl design or caused by valve timing or valve seat design. The focus of this paper is on the charge motion measurement approach including new seeding particles, basic flow study results, and a comparison of the…
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Method for Identification of the Kiss Point as well as Takeoff Point of a Hydraulically Actuated Friction Clutch

IAV-Guido Wachsmuth, Roland Serway
Clausthal University of Technology-Alex Tarasow, Christian Bohn, Marcel Eisbach, Qi Zhao, Georg Bauer
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
For control of most automatic transmissions with wet clutches (e.g. dual clutch transmission), it is important to know the kiss point with high accuracy. The kiss point describes the value of the control variable for which the friction clutch begins to transmit torque. Another significant value during the filling process of a wet clutch is the takeoff point. This is the hydraulic pressure which causes the clutch piston to begin to move. This paper presents an innovative approach that enables the joint determination of the kiss point as well as the takeoff point in only one identification procedure. In contrast to existing methods, this method is able to identify both points without the necessity for undesired auxiliary system excitation. Therefore it is possible to reduce wear on system components such as synchronization rings.The method presented in this paper analyzes the measured filling pressure characteristic over time as the system response to a defined excitation. The innovation of this method consists of dividing this pressure characteristic into three phases, where the separation is motivated by physical…
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