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A Co-Simulation Platform for Powertrain Controls Development

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Shihong Fan, Yong Sun, Jason Hoon Lee, Jinho Ha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0265
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the advancement of simulation software development, the efficiency of vehicle and powertrain controls research and development can be significantly improved. Traditionally, during the development of a new control algorithm, dyno or on-road testing is necessary to validate the algorithm. Physical testing is not only costly, but also time consuming. In this study, a virtual platform is developed to reduce the effort of testing. To improve the simulation accuracy, co-simulation of multiple software is suggested as each software specializes in certain area. The Platform includes Matlab Simulink, PTV Vissim, Tass Prescan and AVL Cruise. PTV Vissim is used to provide traffic environment to PreScan. PreScan is used for ego vehicle simulation and visualization. Traffic, signal and road network are synchronized in Vissim and PreScan. Powertrain system is simulated in Cruise. MATALB/Simulink serves as master of this co-simulation, and integrates the different software together. It also includes human driver model and a powertrain control function. An ADAS-ISG (Idle Stop and Go) powertrain control algorithm is implemented in Simulink and tested by using the platform under different…
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Real Fuel Modeling for Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Mayuri Wagh, Nahm Roh Joo, Philip Zoldak
Michigan Technological University-Hyejun Won, Youngchul Ra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0784
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasing regulatory demand for efficiency has led to development of novel combustion modes such as HCCI, GCI, and RCCI for gasoline light duty (LD) engines. In order to realize HCCI as a compression ignition combustion mode system, in-cylinder compression temperatures must be elevated to reach the autoignition point of the premixed fuel/air mixture. 3D CFD combustion modeling is used to model auto-ignition of gasoline fuel under compression ignition condition necessitating the need for a gasoline fuel properties and chemistry model. Using the entire fuel consisting of thousands of components in the CFD simulations is computationally expensive. To overcome this challenge, the fuel is represented by few major components of the desired fuel. Real fuel modeling consists of modeling the physical properties (e.g. evaporation) using the spray model and the chemical kinetic properties (e.g. combustion) using the chemistry model. In this study, 9 variations of gasoline fuel sets were chosen as candidates to run in HCCI combustion mode. The fuels differentiate in the number and concentration of components in their surrogate models, which are between 10…
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EGR Temperature Estimation Model Including the Effect of Coolant Flow Rate for EGR Control

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Yong Sun, Jason Hoon Lee, Jinho Ha, Byungho Lee
University of Michigan - Dearborn-Kyoung Hyun Kwak, Dewey Jung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0264
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Recently developed gasoline engines utilize more aggressive EGR rate to meet the emissions and fuel economy regulations. The EGR temperature is often estimated by the ECU and its accuracy affects the estimations of EGR flow rate and intake air flow rate and temperature. Therefore, the accuracy of EGR temperature estimation becomes more important than ever for precise EGR rate control. Typical lookup map based EGR cooler model without the sensitivity to the coolant flow rate is acceptable and widely used if the heat capacity of the coolant side is high enough. However, the coolant flow rate under real vehicle driving conditions often visit low-speed high-load part of the engine map where the lookup map based model suffers from the accuracy issues. This paper presents an investigation of the accuracy of the lookup map based model under different heat capacity conditions. In this study, a simple EGR cooler model based on effectiveness-NTU method was also developed. Coolant flow rate used in this model is calculated with a regressed model, which is a function of engine speed…
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Development of Advanced Idle Stop-and-Go Control Utilizing V2I

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Jason Hoon Lee, Yong Sun, Josiah Humphrey, Jinho Ha, Byungho Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0581
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Previous studies proposed the utilization of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) for introducing adaptiveness to powertrain control with respect to traffic situation change. When vehicle stops with the engine shut off by Auto Stop/Start function, the controller keeps watching the movement of preceding vehicle using ADAS sensors. Then it restarts the engine automatically as soon as it detects the launch of the vehicle ahead, before the driver releases brake pedal. The control logic also can inhibit Auto Stop/Start under specific driving conditions, for example, stopping for a stop sign or waiting at a roundabout by utilizing the traffic sign recognition function of vision sensor. In the prior studies it was demonstrated through actual vehicle tests that the new control method can improve the Auto Stop/Start performance, thereby mitigating customer complaints regarding the hesitation in engine restart and promoting the usage. However, the previously suggested method based on movement detection becomes useless if there was no target vehicle ahead to follow. The issue arises when the vehicle happens to be the first vehicle from traffic light…
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Development of Adaptive Powertrain Control Utilizing ADAS and GPS

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Jason H. Lee, Kwangwoo Jeong, Jaihyun Lee, Sanghoon Yoo, Byungho Lee, Jinho Ha
Hyundai Motor Co.-Sejun Kim
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper introduces the advancement of Engine Idle Stop-and-Go (ISG, also known as Auto Engine Stop-Start) and Neutral Coasting Control (NCC) with utilizing Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and GPS. The ISG and the In-Neutral Coasting (also known as Sailing or Gliding) have been widely implemented in recent vehicles for improving their fuel economy. However, many drivers find them somewhat disturbing because they basically change behaviors of their cars from what they used to. This annoyance discourages usages of those functions and eventually undermines their benefit of fuel saving. In order to mitigate the problem, new ISG and NCC algorithms are proposed. As opposed to the conventional logics that rely only on driver’s pedal action, the new algorithms determine whether or not to enable those functions for the given driving condition, based on the traffic information obtained using ADAS sensors and the location data from GPS and navigation map. With the ADAS module, the movement of a vehicle ahead is continuously monitored, and driver’s reaction to the movement is predicted and reflected in controlling ISG…
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Development of Virtual Fuel Economy Trend Evaluation Process

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Sanghoon Yoo, Jason H. Lee, Byungho Lee, Jinho Ha
Ohio State University-Mustafa Ridvan Cantas, Shihong Fan, Ozgenur Kavas, Santhosh Tamilarasan, Levent Guvenc
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With the advancement of the autonomous vehicle development, the different possibilities of improving fuel economy have increased significantly by changing the driver or powertrain response under different traffic conditions. Development of new fuel-efficient driving strategies requires extensive experiments and simulations in traffic. In this paper, a fuel efficiency simulator environment with existing simulator software such as Simulink, Vissim, Sumo, and CarSim is developed in order to reduce the overall effort required for developing new fuel-efficient algorithms. The simulation environment is created by combining a mid-sized sedan MATLAB-Simulink powertrain model with a realistic microscopic traffic simulation program. To simulate the traffic realistically, real roads from urban and highway sections are modeled in the simulator with different traffic densities. Other traffic elements which would affect the fuel consumption, such as speed limit information, traffic stop sign and a traffic lights with SPaT (Signal Phase and Timing) information, are a part of the simulator. In order to evaluate the performance of the developed algorithms, fuel consumption performance of the developed algorithms are compared with the fuel consumption performance…
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Utilization of ADAS for Improving Performance of Coasting in Neutral

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Hoon Lee, Jaihyun Lee, Sanghoon Yoo, Kwangwoo Jeong, Byungho Lee, Sejun Kim
The Ohio State University-Levent Guvenc, Mustafa Ridvan Cantas, Santhosh Tamilarasan, Nitish Chandramouli
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
It has been discussed in numerous prior studies that in-neutral coasting, or sailing, can accomplish considerable amount of fuel saving when properly used. The driving maneuver basically makes the vehicle sail in neutral gear when propulsion is unnecessary. By disengaging a clutch or shifting the gear to neutral, the vehicle may better utilize its kinetic energy by avoiding dragging from the engine side. This strategy has been carried over to series production recently in some of the vehicles on the market and has become one of the eco-mode features available in current vehicles. However, the duration of coasting must be long enough to attain more fuel economy benefit than Deceleration Fuel Cut-Off (DFCO) - which exists in all current vehicle powertrain controllers - can bring. Also, the transients during shifting back to drive gear can result in a drivability concern. The in-neutral coasting system should automatically shift to drive in case of nearby traffic for safe operation capability.To mitigate those issues, this paper proposes an in-neutral coasting control algorithm that utilizes information from Advanced Driver…
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Investigation of the Turbulence Modeling Effects on the CFD Predictions of Passenger Vehicle Underhood Airflow

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Lee Foster
UNC Charlotte Motorsports Engineering-Chunhui Zhang, Mesbah Uddin
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools play an important role in the early stages of vehicle aerothermal development. Arguably, the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) approaches are most widely used in industry due to their acceptable accuracy with affordable computational cost and faster turnaround time. In many automotive flows, RANS models cannot very accurately capture the absolute flow features or even the integral force coefficients. In spite of this, the RANS based CFD prediction results can conveniently be used to assess the magnitude and direction of a trend. However, even for such purposes, notable disagreements often exist between the flow features predicted by different RANS turbulence models. Whilst comparisons of different RANS models for various applications are abundant in literature, such evaluations on full-car models are limited, especially the evaluations of the cooling airflow inside the underhood compartment. In this study, four widely used RANS turbulence models, i.e., the realizable k − ε, AKN k − ε, SST k − ω, and V2F model will be assessed on a full-scale passenger vehicle. The vehicle model used in this study is a passenger car…
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Control for Electrical Coolant Valve in Engine Thermal Management Module

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Hoon Lee, Kwangwoo Jeong, Sanghoon Yoo, Byungho Lee, Sejun Kim
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Hyundai-Kia Motor Company recently developed a multi-way, electrical coolant valve for engine thermal management module (TMM). The main purposes of the TMM are to boost fuel economy by accelerating engine warm-up and also to enhance engine thermal efficiency by actively controlling the operating temperature. In addition to those, the system can improve vehicle heating and cooling performance as well. The electrical coolant valve is a key component in the TMM as it modulates the amount of coolant flow to individual components in cooling system such as engine oil heat exchanger, heater core, and radiator. The coolant flow modulation is done by controlling the electric valve’s position with using an electric motor attached to the valve. The objective of the valve control is to manage coolant temperature at a desired level that varies depending on vehicle’s operating condition.This paper discusses the control algorithm developed for controlling electrical coolant valve. The algorithm is designed to force engine coolant temperature to robustly follow the desired temperature target under disturbance from engine operating condition variation. In order to deal…
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Model-Based Fuel Economy Technology Assessment

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Hoon Lee, Byungho Lee, Sejun Kim
Argonne National Laboratory-Namdoo Kim, Aymeric Rousseau
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Many leading companies in the automotive industry have been putting tremendous amount of efforts into developing new designs and technologies to make their products more energy efficient. It is straightforward to evaluate the fuel economy benefit of an individual technology in specific systems and components. However, when multiple technologies are combined and integrated into a whole vehicle, estimating the impact without building and testing an actual vehicle becomes very complex, because the efficiency gains from individual components do not simply add up. In an early concept phase, a projection of fuel efficiency benefits from new technologies will be extremely useful; but in many cases, the outlook has to rely on engineer’s insight since it is impractical to run tests for all possible technology combinations. This paper demonstrates a model-based framework to support new vehicle concept development by providing a full vehicle-level analysis of fuel economy, performance, and product cost via mixing and matching of available technologies and vehicle components. The simulation tool automatically assembles vehicle models from a user-definable component library and technology decision tree…
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