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Age-Specific Injury Risk Curves for Distributed, Anterior Thoracic Loading of Various Sizes of Adults Based on Sternal Deflections

General Motors Corporation-Harold J. Mertz
D. J. Dalmotas Consulting, Inc.-Dainius J. Dalmotas
Published 2016-11-07 by The Stapp Association in United States
Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers.
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Thoracic Injury Risk Curves for Rib Deflections of the SID-IIs Build Level D

General Motors Corporation-Harold J. Mertz
General Motors LLC-Annette L. Irwin, Greg Crawford, David Gorman, Sikui Wang
Published 2016-11-07 by The Stapp Association in United States
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D. Where possible, the rib deflections of SID-IIs build level D were scaled to adjust for differences in impact velocity between the PMHS and SID-IIs tests. Injury risk curves developed by the Mertz-Weber modified median rank method are presented and compared to risk curves developed by other parametric and non-parametric methods.
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Biomechanical and Scaling Basis for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values

General Motors Corporation-Harold J. Mertz
General Motors LLC-Annette L. Irwin
Published 2016-11-07 by The Stapp Association in United States
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, ES-2 and SID-IIs. The purpose of the original publication was to provide in a single document: 1) a listing of the IARVs for measurements made with the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies, and for the biofidelic side impact dummies, 2) the biomechanical and/or scaling bases for these IARVs, and…
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Disc Brake Pad Corrosion Adhesion: Test-to-Field Issue Correlation, and Exploration of Friction Physical Properties Influence to Adhesion Break-Away Force

General Motors Corporation-Matthew Robere
Published 2016-09-18 by SAE International in United States
Brake pad to rotor adhesion following exposure to corrosive environments, commonly referred to as “stiction”, continues to present braking engineers with challenges in predicting issues in early phases of development and in resolution once the condition has been identified. The goal of this study took on two parts - first to explore trends in field stiction data and how testing methods can be adapted to better replicate the vehicle issue at the component level, and second to explore the impacts of various brake pad physical properties variation on stiction propensity via a controlled design of experiments. Part one will involve comparison of various production hardware configurations on component level stiction tests with different levels of prior braking experience to evaluate conditioning effects on stiction breakaway force. Part two will involve modifying a production friction material formulation with known stiction in the field to force differences in porosity, density, and pH, and thus attempt to correlate stiction propensity with these physical properties. A prior study [1] has explored this potential with non-commercial friction materials of very…
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CVJ and Knuckle Design Optimization to Protect Inboard Wheel Bearing Seals from Splash

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

General Motors Corporation-Robert G. Sutherlin, Douglas Reed
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1956
Published 2016-09-18 by SAE International in United States
For higher mileage vehicles, noise from contaminant ingress is one of the largest durability issues for wheel bearings. The mileage that wheel bearing sealing issues increase can vary due to multiple factors, such as the level of corrosion for the vehicle and the mating components around the wheel bearing. In general, sealing issues increase after 20,000 to 30,000 km. Protecting the seals from splash is a key step in extending bearing life. Benchmarking has shown a variety of different brake corner designs to protect the bearing from splash. This report examines the effect of factors from different designs, such as the radial gap between constant velocity joint (CVJ) slinger and the knuckle, knuckle labyrinth height and varying slinger designs to minimize the amount of splash to the bearing inboard seal. This report reviews some of the bearing seal failure modes caused by splash. This study also discusses the test methodology to confirm the robustness of the various designs and provides information on the effectiveness of different features to protect the corner from splash.
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Vehicle Level Brake Drag Target Setting for EPA Fuel Economy Certification

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

General Motors Corporation-David B. Antanaitis
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1925
Published 2016-09-18 by SAE International in United States
The strong focus on reducing brake drag, driven by a historic ramp-up in global fuel economy and carbon emissions standards, has led to renewed research on brake caliper drag behaviors and how to measure them. However, with the increased knowledge of the range of drag behaviors that a caliper can exhibit comes a particularly vexing problem - how should this complex range of behaviors be represented in the overall road load of the vehicle? What conditions are encountered during coastdown and fuel economy testing, and how should brake drag be measured and represented in these conditions? With the Environmental Protection Agency (amongst other regulating agencies around the world) conducting audit testing, and the requirement that published road load values be repeatable within a specified range during these audits, the importance of answering these questions accurately is elevated. This paper studies these questions, and even offers methodology for addressing them. It includes a review of how variation in brake drag can affect fuel economy and carbon emissions certification, a review of the many transient and driver-dependent…
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Cabin Air Humidity Model and its Application

General Motors Corporation-Rupesh Sonu Kakade
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In addition to the thermal comfort of the vehicle occupants, their safety by ensuring adequate visibility is an objective of the automotive climate control system. An integrated dew point and glass temperature sensor is widely used among several other technologies to detect risk of fog formation on the cabin side (or inner) surface of the windshield. The erroneous information from a sensor such as the measurement lag can cause imperfect visibility due to the delayed response of the climate control system. Also the high value, low cost vehicles may not have this sensor due to its high cost. A differential equation based model of the cabin air humidity is proposed to calculate in real-time specific humidity of the passenger compartment air. The specific humidity is used along with the windshield surface temperature to determine relative humidity of air and therefore, the risk of fog formation on the interior surface of a windshield. The generally uniform spatial distribution of cabin air humidity is used to advantage. However, the accuracy of a cabin air humidity model is…
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Fast and Efficient Detection of Shading of the Objects

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

General Motors Corporation-Rupesh Sonu Kakade, Prashant Mer
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0371
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The human thermal comfort, which has been a subject of extensive research, is a principal objective of the automotive climate control system. Applying the results of research studies to the practical problems require quantitative information of the thermal environment in the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The exposure to solar radiation is known to alter the thermal environment in the passenger compartment. A photovoltaic-cell based sensor is commonly used in the automotive climate control system to measure the solar radiation exposure of the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The erroneous information from a sensor however can cause thermal discomfort to the occupants. The erroneous measurement can be due to physical or environmental parameters. Shading of a solar sensor due to the opaque vehicle body elements is one such environmental parameter that is known to give incorrect measurement. The fundamental geometric principles of the intersection of a line segment and a plane can be used to determine if sensor is shaded, for given position of the sun with respect to a vehicle and geometry of the…
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Power Dense and Robust Traction Power Inverter for the Second-Generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range EV

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

General Motors Corporation-Mohammad Anwar, Anthony Tata, Mehrdad Teimorzadeh, Thomas Achatz
Delphi Electronics & Safety-Monty Hayes
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1201
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. First generation Chevrolet Volts were driven over half a billion miles in North America from October 2013 through September 2014, 74% of which were all-electric [1, 12]. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (EREV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
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Least-Enthalpy Based Control of Cabin Air Recirculation

General Motors Corporation-Rupesh Sonu Kakade
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The vehicle air-conditioning system has significant impact on fuel economy and range of electric vehicles. Improving the fuel economy of vehicles therefore demand for energy efficient climate control systems. Also the emissions regulations motivate the reduced use of fuel for vehicle's cabin climate control. Solar heat gain of the passenger compartment by greenhouse effect is generally treated as the peak thermal load of the climate control system. Although the use of advanced glazing is considered first to reduce solar heat gain other means such as ventilation of parked car and recirculation of cabin air also have impetus for reducing the climate control loads. However experimental based recirculation control strategies may lead to - 1) increased humidity levels, increasing the risk of windshield fogging, especially during cabin heating operation, 2) unpleasant odors due to biological aerosols and harmful volatile organic compounds and 3) insufficient oxygen and high CO2 levels inside the cabin. The analytical method is proposed to determine compressor work for a given cabin cooling requirement defined by the evaporator outlet air temperature and a…
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