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Tuning Aircraft Engines with OptiStruct Rotor Dynamics Simulation

GE Aviation-Illya Arcos
Altair Engineering-Ujwal Kondavalasa Patnaik, Junji Saiki
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
It is typical in aircraft engine design to explore new configurations in a constant effort to achieve greater efficiency with respect to various considerations. An integral component of this process requires a complete and robust simulation of rotor dynamics. Tuning the design with results of rotor dynamics simulations can be made possible with a tool that has adequate modeling techniques to capture the physics associated with engine behavior under various operating conditions accurately.
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Adaptive Power and Thermal Management System (APTMS) Technologies for Advanced Airborne Applications

GE Aviation-Matthew R. Cerny, Keith Joerger
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper identifies critical and relevant variable/adaptive cycle turbine engine and propulsion subsystem technologies for future next generation aviation systems. A comprehensive evaluation of key technology drivers associated with the development and demonstration of advanced Adaptive Power and Thermal Management System (APTMS) technologies applicable to next generation platforms is addressed. Specifically, the paper explores energy optimization through dynamic mission based simulations of an advanced hybrid air cycle / vapor cycle APTMS architecture combining multiple traditionally federated subsystem functions including auxiliary power, environmental control, emergency power, and engine start. The Integrated Power Turbomachine (IPTM) under development by GE Aviation (GEA) is a critical component of the advanced hybrid APTMS architecture, enabling a three-fold increase in design cooling capacity compared to current air dominance platforms, with a significant reduction in engine bleed extraction.
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PREOVIDE as an Approach to Integrated Modeling and Simulation

GE Aviation-Thomas Brinson, Javier A. Parrilla, Jose M. Molinar-Monterrubio
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
To obtain a system level, integrated perspective on vehicle energy management, the traditional methods for conducting preliminary design, gauging independent requirements, must be abandoned. This method does not capture critical interactions between the various aircraft subsystems. Instead, a more global appreciation for interactions across boundaries needs to be realized with a mosaic scheme, where models are integrated and co-simulated. The advantage of this approach is to enhance the preliminary design stage by predicting integration issues early in the development process. Legacy design practice involved gathering data from multiple vendors in order to produce design iterations. The ability to link models directly is extremely beneficial, as requirements no longer have to be executed independently. This approach reduces cumbersome iterations between model owners and accelerates trade studies. GE Aviation is developing a PREliminary Optimized Vehicle Integration Design Enabler Tool (or PREOVIDE) to facilitate this approach. PREOVIDE is an integrated toolset with a strong emphasis on performance of thermal management systems at the vehicle level. This initiative has led to new and/or improved models for environmental controls systems,…
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Systems Engineering - Directions and Challenges

GE Aviation-Manxue Lu
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This article attempts to provide a big picture of systems engineering in both philosophy and engineering perspectives, discusses current status and issues, trends of systems engineering development, future directions and challenges, followed by certain examples.
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Hybrid Environmental Control System Integrated Modeling Trade Study Analysis for Commercial Aviation

GE Aviation-Javier A. Parrilla
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Current industry trends demonstrate aircraft electrification will be part of future platforms in order to achieve higher levels of efficiency in various vehicle level sub-systems. However, electrification requires a substantial change in aircraft design that is not suitable for re-winged or re-engined applications as some aircraft manufacturers are opting for today. Thermal limits arise as engine cores progressively get smaller and hotter to improve overall engine efficiency, while legacy systems still demand a substantial amount of pneumatic, hydraulic and electric power extraction. The environmental control system (ECS) provides pressurization, ventilation and air conditioning in commercial aircraft, making it the main heat sink for all aircraft loads with exception of the engine fuel thermal management system. To mitigate the architecture thermal limits in an efficient manner, the form in which the ECS integrates with the engine will have to be enhanced as to reduce the overall energy consumed and achieve an energy optimized solution. This study examines a tradeoff analysis of an electric ECS by use of a fully integrated Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) model…
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Integrated System Modeling

GE Aviation-Michael L. Zierolf, Thomas Brinson, Andrew Fleming
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Recent emphasis on optimization of engine technologies with ancillary subsystems such as power and thermal management has created a need for integrated system modeling. These systems are coupled such that federated design methods may not lead to the most synergetic solution. Obtaining an optimal design is often contingent on developing an integrated model. Integrated models, however, can involve combining complex simulation platforms into a single system of systems, which can present many challenges. Model organization and configuration control become increasingly important when orchestrating various models into a single simulation. Additionally, it is important to understand such details as the interface between models and signal routing to ensure the integrated behavior is not contaminated or biased. This paper will present some key learnings for model integration to help alleviate some of the challenges with system-based modeling.
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Simplified Aircraft DC Power System Model

GE Aviation-Arthur V. Radun
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
An important part of future air vehicle design will be the development of a transient integrated aircraft system model. DC electric power system modeling poses particular challenges because they are highly dynamic and employ short time constant line replaceable units [1, 2, 3]. This paper describes an approach to modeling an aircraft's electric power system that uses simplified non-physics based models of the line replaceable units that are part of future 270VDC aircraft power systems. The model is an alternative to physics based models and is particularly useful for the initial phases of aircraft development before hardware development has occurred. A 270VDC aircraft power system model is constructed as an example using the unit models. Selected results will be presented.
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Integrated Aircraft Thermal Management & Power Generation: Reconfiguration of a Closed Loop Air Cycle System as a Brayton Cycle Gas Generator to Support Auxiliary Electric Power Generation

GE Aviation-Javier A. Parrilla
University of Cincinnati-Philip Abolmoali, Awatef Hamed
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The optimal integration of vehicle subsystems is of critical importance in the design of future energy efficient fighter aircraft. The INVENT (INtegrated Vehicle ENergy Technology) program has been dedicated to this endeavor through modeling/simulation of thermal management, power generation & distribution, & actuation subsystems. Achieving dual cooling & power generation capability from a single subsystem would be consistent with current efforts in system integration optimization.In this paper, we present a reconfiguration of an archetypal closed-loop air cycle system for a modern fighter as an open-loop gas generator cycle operating interchangeably between refrigeration and auxiliary power modes. A numerical model was developed within NPSS to assess maximum power extraction capabilities of a system originally designed for cooling purposes under different operating conditions. Presented results demonstrate variations in maximum power extraction, flow rates, and turbomachinery performance parameters over a range of flight altitudes and Mach numbers. Finally, the effect of variable area nozzle operation for the power turbine was explored at sea level static conditions and was found to improve system power extraction capability.This document has been…
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Dynamic Magnetic Circuit Models Including Iron Saturation and Losses

GE Aviation-Arthur V. Radun
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
There is a continuing need to simulate power electronic circuits that include magnetic components. It is necessary to determine the interaction of the magnetic component with the rest of the power electronic system so that a dynamic circuit model of the magnetic components including material saturation and iron losses is required. Also, the magnetic component model must be valid when the magnetic component's excitation is not sinusoidal.A dynamic magnetic circuit model derived from Maxwell's equations along with useful theorems for building circuit models from the structure of the magnetic device is reviewed. The developed circuit models are general including magnetic saturation and iron losses. Simulation results for a DC/DC converter employing a conventional gapped inductor and a gapped coupled inductor are presented.
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CFD Analysis of Supercooled Large Droplets in Turbofan Engines

GE Aviation-Chuck Califf, Anabel Rodriguez, Eduardo Lemini
GE Global Research Center-Chiong Tan
Published 2011-06-13 by SAE International in United States
The study of Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD) has received greater attention in the Aviation industry since the ATR-72 accident in 1994, which was attributed to SLD. This type of icing cloud usually consists of droplets of up to a millimeter in diameter and mean volumetric diameter (MVD) greater than 40 microns1. The analyses of the ice accretion process with SLD have focused mainly on the wing and stabilizers, particularly on the leading edges where accretion can occur beyond the ice protected areas. There are several numerical and empirical models to predict the mass and shapes of ice accreted from SLD, but there are few published papers that focus on SLD accretion within aircraft turbofan engines2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.SLD droplets have higher inertia than conventional icing droplets, which leads to their trajectories being less influenced by the aerodynamic forces. However, large droplets are more likely to breakup than smaller droplets when subjected to highly shear flows. In addition, SLD tends to splash on impact resulting in smaller droplets in the process.CFD tools…
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