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Elemental Composition Determination and Stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratios of Gasoline Containing Ethanol

Furey & Associates LLC-Robert Furey
GM Powertrain-Pat Geng
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are major elements in modern fuels. Varying combinations of these elements in motor fuel alter the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F). Stoichiometric A/F ratio is an important parameter in engine calibration affecting vehicle performance, emissions and fuel economy.With increasing use of ethanol in automotive fuels in recent years, since it can be made from renewable feedstocks, oxygen contents in fuel are increasing. Oxygen contents can be around 1.7 mass % in European E5 gasoline or 3.5 mass % in U.S. E10 gasoline and up to 29 mass % in E85 fuel. The increase in oxygen content of fuel has resulted in changes in other physical and chemical properties due to the differences between ethanol and hydrocarbons refined from fossil oil. A previous paper (SAE 2010-01-1517) discussed the change in energy content of automotive fuel and the estimation of net heating values from common fuel properties. This paper will discuss the estimation of elemental composition and stoichiometric A/F ratios of gasoline-ethanol blends from common fuel properties. While the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen contents…
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Calculation of Heating Value for Gasoline Containing Ethanol

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Furey & Associates LLC-Robert Furey
General Motors-Pat Geng
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1517
Published 2010-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Ethanol for use in automotive fuels can be made from renewable feedstocks, which contributes to its increased use in recent years. There are many differences in physical and chemical properties between ethanol and petrochemicals refined from fossil oil. One of the differences is its energy content. The energy content, or heating value, is an important property of motor fuel, since it directly affects vehicle fuel economy. While the energy content can be measured by combustion of the fuel in a bomb, the test is time-consuming and expensive. It is generally satisfactory and more convenient to estimate that property from other commonly-measured fuel properties. Several standardized empirical methods have been developed in the past for estimating the energy content of hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel. However, the addition of ethanol to gasoline has become very common in some countries, and most of the estimation methods developed for hydrocarbon fuels are not satisfactory for use with gasoline-ethanol blends, especially blends containing more than about 10 volume-percent ethanol. This paper summarizes heating value…
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