Your Selections

Ford Werke GmbH
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Hybrid Powertrain Technology Assessment through an Integrated Simulation Approach

Ford Werke GmbH-Harald Stoffels
Continental-Naroa Zaldua-Moreno, Lorenzo Pace
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Global automotive fuel economy and emissions pressures mean that 48 V hybridisation will become a significant presence in the passenger car market. The complexity of powertrain solutions is increasing in order to further improve fuel economy for hybrid vehicles and maintain robust emissions performance. However, this results in complex interactions between technologies which are difficult to identify through traditional development approaches, resulting in sub-optimal solutions for either vehicle attributes or cost. The results presented in this paper are from a simulation programme focussed on the optimisation of various advanced powertrain technologies on 48 V hybrid vehicle platforms. The technologies assessed include an electrically heated catalyst, an insulated turbocharger, an electric water pump and a thermal management module. The novel simulation approach undertaken uses an integrated toolchain capturing thermal, electrical and mechanical energy usage across all powertrain sub-systems. Through integrating 0-D and 1-D sub-models into a single modelling environment, the operating strategy of the technologies can be optimised while capturing the synergies that exist between them. This approach enables improved and more informed cost/benefit ratios for…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Optimal Engine Re-Start Strategy on a Mild Hybrid Powertrain by Means of Up-Front Modelling

Ford Werke GmbH-Harald Stoffels, Shan-An Kao, Michael Frenken
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The ability to switch off the internal combustion engine (ICE) during vehicle operation is a key functionality in hybrid powertrains to achieve low fuel economy. However, this can affect driveability, namely acceleration response when an ICE re-engagement due to a driver initiated torque demand is required. The ICE re-start as well as the speed and load synchronisation with the driveline and corresponding vehicle speed can lead to high response times. To avoid this issue, the operational range where the ICE can be switched off is often compromised, in turn sacrificing fuel economy. Based on a 48V off-axis P2 hybrid powertrain comprising a lay-shaft transmission we present an up-front simulation methodology that considers the relevant parameters of the ICE like air-path, turbocharger, friction, as well as the relevant mechanical and electrical parameters on the hybrid drive side, including a simplified multi-body approach to reflect the relevant vehicle and powertrain dynamics. Applying different ICE re-start strategies at different speeds and gears, the driveability of the ICE re-engagement was evaluated using a commercialized driveability evaluation tool. Subjective ratings,…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

CFD-Simulation and Validation of Cabin Pressure during Door Closing Motions

Ford Werke GmbH-Andreas Cousin, Marc Seggern
Ford Motor Company-Mallikarjun Sukumar, Sunil Patil
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Under the competitive pressure of automotive industry the customer’s focus is on a vehicle’s quality perception. Side door closing efforts make a considerable share of the overall impression as the doors are the first physical and haptic interface to the customer. Customer’s subjective feeling of vehicle quality demands for detailed analysis of each contributor of door closing efforts. Most contributors come from kinematic influences. Beside the losses due to mechanical subsystems like the checkarm, latch or hinge friction one of the biggest impacts originates from the pressure spike that builds up due to air being pushed into the cabin. Subject of this publication is to discuss the dependencies of closing efforts on cabin pressure and air extraction. It demonstrates an approach to simulate the development of the air pressure during door closing motions and the validation of the simulation method with the “EZ-Slam” measurement device. In order to produce a correlation between simulation and reality a simplified model of a vehicle cabin is created. The validation tests are conducted on a physical test rig, built…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

In-Situ Measurements of the Piston and Connecting Rod Dynamics Correlated with TEHL-Simulation Techniques

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ford Werke GmbH-Harald Stoffels
IVK/Universitat Stuttgart-Wolfgang Gross
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-24-0157
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
High combustion pressure in combination with high pressure gradient, as they e.g. can be evoked by high efficient combustion systems and e.g. by alternative fuels, acts as broadband excitation force which stimulates natural vibrations of piston, connecting rod and crankshaft during engine operation. Starting from the combustion chamber the assembly of piston, connecting rod and crankshaft and the main bearings represent the system of internal vibration transfer. To generate exact input and validation values for simulation models of structural dynamic and elasto-hydrodynamic coupled multi-body systems, experimental investigations are done. These are carried out on a 1.5-l inline four cylinder Euro 6 Diesel engine. The modal behaviour of the system was examined in detail in simulation and test as a basis for the investigations.In an anechoic test bench airborne and structure-borne noises and combustion pressure are measured to identify the engine´s vibrational behaviour. To understand the behaviour of the connecting rod as the key component in more detail its elongation, using semiconductor strain gauges at the connecting rod shank and a linkage system, is also measured.…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Potential of Electric Energy Recuperation by Means of the Turbocharger on a Downsized Gasoline Engine

Ford Werke GmbH-Harald Stoffels, Jens Dunstheimer, Christian Hofmann
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
The application of a turbocharger, having an electric motor/generator on the rotor was studied focusing on the electric energy recuperation on a downsized gasoline internal combustion engine (turbocharged, direct injection) using 1D-calculation approaches. Using state-of-the art optimization techniques, the settings of the valve timing was optimized to cater for a targeted pre-turbine pressure and certain level of residual gases in the combustion chamber to avoid abnormal combustion events. Subsequently, a steady-state map of the potential of electric energy recuperation was performed while considering in parallel different efficiency maps of the potential generator and a certain waste-gate actuation strategy. Moreover, the results were taken as input to a WLTP cycle simulation in order to identify any synergies with regard to fuel economy. Finally, the value of electric energy, either recuperated via the electric turbocharger, inputting the electric conversion efficiency as a function of the rotor speed of the turbocharger based on measured characteristics, was put in comparison to the same amount of electric energy, supplied by the conventional generator in the front-end accessory drive. The study…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Damping Effects Introduced by a Nonlinear Vibration Absorber in Automotive Drivelines at Idle Engine Speeds

Ford Werke GmbH-Patrick Kelly
Loughborough Univ-Homer Rahnejat
Published 2016-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Legislation on vehicle emissions and the requirements for fuel efficiency are currently the key development driving factors in the automotive industry. Research activities to comply with these targets point to engine downsizing and new boosting technologies, which have adverse effects on the NVH performance, durability and component life. As a consequence of engine downsizing, substantial torsional oscillations are generated due to high combustion pressures. Meanwhile, to attenuate torsional vibrations, the manufacturers have implemented absorbers that are tuned to certain frequency ranges, including clutch dampers, Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) and centrifugal pendulum dampers. These devices add mass/inertia to the system, potentially introducing negative effects on other vehicle attributes, such as weight, driving performance and gear shiftability.This paper provides a study of torsional damping effects of nonlinear vibration absorbers on drivetrain NVH refinement by attenuating torsional oscillations at the idling engine speeds. The nonlinear absorber concept presented operates on the principle of Targeted Energy Transfer (TET), whereby the energy excess (vibration) from a donor (primary powertrain system) is transferred to a receiver (nonlinear absorber) in a nearly…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of Methodology for Predictive Diesel Combustion Simulation Using 0D Stochastic Reactor Model

Ford Werke GmbH-Tim Franken
Brandenburg University of Technology-Fabian Mauss
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Stringent exhaust emission limits and new vehicle test cycles require sophisticated operating strategies for future diesel engines. Therefore, a methodology for predictive combustion simulation, focused on multiple injection operating points is proposed in this paper. The model is designated for engine performance map simulations, to improve prediction of NOx, CO and HC emissions.The combustion process is calculated using a zero dimensional direct injection stochastic reactor model based on a probability density function approach. Further, the formation of exhaust emissions is described using a detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane, which involves 56 Species and 206 reactions. The model includes the interaction between turbulence and chemistry effects by using a variable mixing time profile. Thus, one is able to capture the effects of mixture inhomogeneities on NOx, CO and HC emission formation.The mixing time model is parameterized using transfer functions for engine operating parameters, e.g., injection mass, injection duration, air fuel ratio, start of injection and speed. These functions are calibrated for nine operating points using multi objective simulated annealing optimization combined with fast running metamodels that…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of Fluid-Structure Interaction CAE Method to Assess Effect of Fuel Slosh on Fuel Level Sensor

Ford Werke GmbH-Ilja Buerkle
CD-adapco-Alexander Simpson
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Fuel level sensors are used to indicate the amount of fuel in the tank of an automobile. The most common type of fuel level sensor is the float-arm sensor in which a float is connected to a resistance band via an arm. The fuel volume inside the tank sets the height of the float which in turn is converted to a resistance value. This resistance value is converted into gauge reading that is displayed on the dashboard. Whereas this method is widely popular due to its low cost and durability, fuel slosh phenomenon imposes a major challenge. The fuel slosh waves under numerous driving maneuvers impose dynamic drag/lift forces on the float which result into fluctuations in its position (i.e. float height). Under severe acceleration or braking maneuvers, the float can actually submerge inside the liquid and fail to predict location of the free surface. These fluctuations can cause erroneous fuel indication. This is especially critical at low fuel levels where such errors may have significant impact on Distance-to-Empty (DTE) estimations. Therefore, it is important…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Effects of LPG Fuel Formulations on Knock and Pre-Ignition Behavior of a DI SI Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ford Werke GmbH-Ulrich Kramer
FEV GmbH-Matthias Thewes
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1947
Published 2015-09-01 by SAE International in United States
Due to their CO2 reduction potential and their high knock resistance gaseous fuels present a promising alternative for modern highly boosted spark ignition engines. Especially the direct injection of LPG reveals significant advantages. Previous studies have already shown the highest thermodynamic potential for the LPG direct injection concept and its advantages in comparison to external mixture formation systems. In the performed research study a comparison of different LPG fuels in direct injection mode shows that LPG fuels have better auto-ignition behavior than gasoline. A correlation between auto-ignition behavior and the calculated motor octane number could not be found. However, a significantly higher correlation of R2 = 0.88 - 0.99 for CR13 could be seen when using the methane number. One major challenge in order to implement the LPG direct injection concept is to ensure the liquid state of the fuel under all engine operating conditions. Especially at hot soak conditions, the critical point can be exceeded and the supercritical state can be reached. In this context SI combustion anomalies for LPG depending on the gas…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

CAE-Based Driving Comfort Optimization of Passenger Cars

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Ford Werke GmbH-Bjoern Reff
Ford Motor Co. Research and Advanced Eng-Timothy Drotar
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1583
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
One of the key challenges in developing a vehicle for excellent vehicle dynamics is being able to achieve a high level of driving comfort without degrading the steering and handling performance.The part of driving comfort discussed in this paper are tactile vibrations up to f = 100 Hz. This paper describes how Multi-Body Dynamics (MBD) Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools are applied to optimize such vibrations in the early phase of the development process. The approach hereby presented combines system level testing with MBD for the study of ride comfort, similar to the way that system level kinematics and compliance testing is combined with MBD to support steering and handling investigations. Laboratory investigations have been executed to fully characterize a reference suspension with respect to frequency and amplitude behavior. The respective MBD models have been subsequently refined and validated versus physical laboratory measurements. Several examples for a front wheel drive passenger car will be given, which show how these models can be used to effectively support chassis development in early design phases. The first example…
Annotation ability available