Your Selections

Ford Motor Company
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

How Well Can mPEMS Measure Gas Phase Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emissions?

Ford Motor Company-Diep Vu, Joseph Szente, Michael Loos, Matti Maricq
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0369
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
“Real world emissions” is an emerging area of focus in motor vehicle related air quality. These emissions are commonly recorded using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) designed for regulatory application, which are large, complex and costly. Miniature PEMS (mPEMS) is a developing technology that can significantly simplify on-board emissions measurement and potentially promote widespread use. Whereas full PEMS use analyzers to record NOx, CO, and HCs similar to those in emissions laboratories, mPEMS tend to use electrochemical sensors and compact optical detectors for their small size and low cost. The present work provides a comprehensive evaluation of this approach. It compares measurements of NOx, CO, CO2 and HC emissions from five commercial mPEMS to both laboratory and full regulatory PEMS analyzers. It further examines the use of vehicle on-board diagnostics data to calculate exhaust flow, as an alternative to on-vehicle exhaust flow measurement. The evaluations include two vehicle types, gasoline direct injection and diesel, and employ the US EPA Federal Test Procedure and Worldwide Harmonized Light duty test cycles. The results show that two classes…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Integrated Regenerative Braking System and Anti-Lock Braking System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Battery Electric Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Yixin Yao, Yanan Zhao, Mark Yamazaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0846
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes development of an integrated regenerative braking system and anti-lock brake system (ABS) control during an ABS event for hybrid and electric vehicles with drivelines containing a single electric motor connected to the axle shaft through an open differential. The control objectives are to recuperate the maximum amount of kinetic energy during an ABS event, and to provide no degraded anti-lock control behavior as seen in vehicles with regenerative braking disabled. The paper first presents a detailed control system analysis to reveal the inherent property of non-zero regenerative braking torque control during ABS event and explain the reason why regenerative braking torque can increase the wheel slip during ABS event with existing regenerative braking control strategies. Then, the regenerative brake control problem during ABS events is formulated with a unified control system architecture where the regenerative braking torque is coordinated with the friction braking torque of ABS system. An integrated closed loop based wheel slip control including both regenerative braking control loop and friction braking control loop during ABS event, referred to as…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Fuel consumption on different drive cycles: A unified approach based on average power/weight

Ford Motor Company-Patrick Phlips, William Ruona, Thomas Megli, Mrudula Orpe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1278
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In previous work we have shown that fuel consumption on a particular drive cycle is proportional to traction work, with an offset for powertrain losses. The finding applies to different drive cycles, but with different offsets. Following Soltic (2011), it is shown that if fuel usage and traction work are both expressed in terms of cycle average power, a wide range of drive cycles collapse to a single transfer function. Data for vehicles of different weights further collapses when normalized for weight, i.e. by working in power/weight (P/W). The fuel P/W is primarily a function of traction P/W, and secondarily of displacement/weight. The useful work or power definition is then expanded beyond the traction power to include electrical power for customer functions, and power to drive the air conditioning. With this expanded definition the linear powertrain transfer function can be applied not only to strictly defined regulatory drive cycles and procedures, but also to ‘real driving’ conditions that cover a much broader range of situations. When applied to hybrid electric vehicles, the method clearly shows…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

An Analysis of the Effects of Ventilation on Burn Patterns Resulting from Passenger Compartment Interior Fires

Ford Motor Company-James J. Engle, Jennifer L. Buckman, Jeff Williams, Erich Kemnitz, Eric Kalis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0923
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle fire investigators often use the existence of burn patterns and the amount and location of fire damage to determine the fire origin and its cause. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of ventilation location on the burn patterns and burn damage of passenger compartment fires. Four similar 20XX Ford Fusion vehicles were burned. The fire origin and first material ignited were the same for all four vehicles. In each test, a different door window was down for the duration of the burn test. Each vehicle was allowed to burn until the windshield, back glass, or another window, other than the window used for ventilation, failed, thus changing the ventilation pattern. At that point, the fire was extinguished. Temperatures were measured in the passenger compartment and video and still photography were recorded. Post-burn, the vehicle burn patterns were analyzed and conclusions drawn on: ability to determine a window was open during the fire, which window was open, the effect the open window had on burn patterns and burn damage, and the…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

An Investigation into the Traction and Anti-Lock Braking System Control Design

Ford Motor Company-Ming Kuang, Rajit Johri, Jose Velazquez Alcantar
University of California Davis-Louis Filipozzi, Francis Assadian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0997
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Wheel slip control is crucial to active safety control systems such as Traction Control System (TCS) and Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) that ensure vehicle safety by maintaining the wheel slip in a stable region. For this reason, a wide variety of control methods has been implemented by both researchers and in the industry. Moreover, the use of new electro-hydraulic or electro-mechanical brakes, and in-wheel electric motors allow for a more precise wheel slip control, which should further improve the vehicle dynamics and safety. In this paper, we compare two methods for wheel slip control: a loop-shaping Youla parametrization method, and a sliding mode control method. Each controller is designed based on a simple single wheel system. The benefits and drawbacks of both methods are addressed. Finally, the performance and stability robustness of each controller is evaluated based on several metrics in a simulation using a high-fidelity vehicle model with several driving scenarios.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of SI and HCCI Combustion Fueled with DME and OME

Ford Motor Company-Jimi Tjong
University of Windsor-Simon Leblanc, Xiao Yu, Navjot Singh Sandhu, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1355
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
DME has been considered an alternative fuel to diesel fuel with promising benefits because of its high reactivity and volatility. Research shows that an engine fueled with DME will produce zero smoke emissions. However, the storage and the handling of the fuel are underlying difficulties owing to its high vapour pressure (530 kPa @ 20 °C). In lieu, OME1 fuel, a derivate of DME, offers advantages exhibited with DME fuel, all the while being a liquid fuel for engine application. In this work, engine tests are performed to realize the combustion behaviour of DME and OME1 fuel on a single-cylinder research engine with a compression ratio of 9.2:1. The dilution ratio of the mixture is progressively increased in two manners, allowing more air in the cylinder and applying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The high reactivity of DME suits the capability to be used in compression ignition combustion whereas OME1 must be supplied with a supplemental spark to initiate the combustion. The results indicate that a low-temperature heat release (LTHR) is present during the combustion of…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Virtual Verification of Wrecker Tow Requirements

Ford Motor Company-Majid Tabesh, Steven Foster, Sethuprasant Boomipaulraj, Arthur Gariepy, Jim Alanoly
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0766
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Under various real-world scenarios, vehicles can become disabled and require towing. OEMs allow a few options for vehicle wrecker towing that include wheel lift tow using a stinger or towing on a flatbed. These methods entail multiple loading events that need to be assessed for damage to the towed vehicle. OEMs have several testing and evaluation methods in place for those scenarios with majority requiring physical vehicle prototypes. Recent focus to reduce product development time and cost has replaced the need for prototype testing with analytical verification methods. In this paper, the CAE method involving multibody dynamic simulation (MBDS) as well as finite element analysis (FEA) of vehicle flatbed operation, winching onto a flatbed, and stinger-pull towing are discussed. The simulations evaluate and address events such as bumper and underbody parts clearance to the ground, subframe impact with the stinger arm, chain loading on the body, as well as winch cable contact with underbody parts. MBD-FEA co-simulations is an option, but it may not work well when the design process involves disjoint teams, including suppliers.…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

The GTU – A New Realistic Generic Pickup Truck and SUV Model

Ford Motor Company-Sudesh Woodiga, Kevin Howard, Paul Norman, Neil Lewington, Robert Carstairs, Burkhard Hupertz, Karel Chalupa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0664
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Traditionally, ground vehicle aerodynamics has been researched with highly simplified models such as the Ahmed body and the SAE model. These models established and advanced the fundamental understanding of bluff body aerodynamics and have generated a large body of published data, however, their application to the development of passenger vehicles is limited by the highly idealized nature of their geometries. To date, limited data has been openly published on aerodynamic investigations of production vehicles, most likely due to the proprietary nature of production vehicle geometry. In 2012, Heft et al. introduced the realistic generic car model ‘DrivAer’ that better represents the flow physics associated with a typical production vehicle. The introduction of the DrivAer model has led to a broad set of published data for both experimental and computational investigations and has proven itself invaluable as a correlation and calibration tool of wind tunnels, the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and increasing the understanding of the fundamental flow physics around passenger vehicles. Automotive sales trends in the United States, published by the Bureau…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

An LQR Approach of Automatic Transmission Upshift Control Including Use of Off-Going Clutch within Inertia Phase

Ford Motor Company-Vladimir Ivanovic, Yijing Zhang, Yuji Fujii
University of Zagreb-Ivan Cvok, Josko Deur
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0970
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper considers using linear quadratic regulation (LQR) for multi-input control of the Automatic Transmission (AT) upshift inertia phase. The considered control inputs include the transmission input/engine torque, oncoming clutch torque, and traditionally not used off-going clutch torque. Use of the off-going clutch has been motivated by discussed Control Trajectory Optimization (CTO) results demonstrating that employing the off-going clutch during the inertia phase along with the main, oncoming clutch can improve the upshift control performance in terms of the shift duration and/or comfort by trading off the transmission efficiency and control simplicity to some extent. The proposed LQR approach provides setting an optimal trade-off between the conflicting criteria related to driving comfort and clutches thermal energy loss. It ensures tracking a linear-like profile of oncoming clutch slip speed reference, which was found to be nearly optimal based on control trajectory optimization results. A special attention is given on proper implementation of nonlinear energy loss term through LQR cost function cross term and using a clipped optimal control approach to provide that the clutches (described as…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Calibration and Validation of GISSMO Damage Model for A 780-MPa Third Generation Advanced High Strength Steel

Ford Motor Company-Tau Tyan, Krishnakanth Aekbote
United States Steel Corporation-Guofei Chen, Lu Huang, Todd M. Link
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0198
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To evaluate vehicle crash performance in the early design stages, a reliable fracture model is needed in crash simulations to predict material fracture initiation and propagation. In this paper, a generalized incremental stress state dependent damage model (GISSMO) in LS-DYNA® was calibrated and validated for a 780-MPa third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS), namely 780 XG3TM steel that combines high strength and ductility. The fracture locus of the 780 XG3TM steel was experimentally characterized under various stress states including uniaxial tension, shear, plane strain and equi-biaxial stretch conditions. A process to calibrate the parameters in the GISSMO model was developed and successfully applied to the 780 XG3TM steel using the fracture test data for these stress states. The calibrated GISSMO fracture card for 780 XG3TM steel was then validated in simulations of wedge-bend tests, two notched tensile tests and axial crash tests of octagonal, 12-sided and 16-sided components. The predicted fracture locations, displacement at fracture and force-displacement curves agreed well with the test results. The study also demonstrates that 780 XG3TM steel, when combined…