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How well can mPEMS measure gas phase motor vehicle exhaust emissions?

Ford Motor Company-Diep Vu, Joseph Szente, Michael Loos, Matti Maricq
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0369
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
“Real world emissions” is an emerging area of focus in motor vehicle related air quality. These emissions are commonly recorded using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) designed for regulatory application, which are large, complex and costly. Miniature PEMS (mPEMS) is a developing technology that can significantly simplify on-board emissions measurement and potentially promote widespread use. Whereas full PEMS use analyzers to record NOx, CO, and HCs similar to those in emissions laboratories, mPEMS tend to use electrochemical sensors and compact spectroscopic detectors for their small size and low cost. The present work evaluates this approach by comparing measurements of NOx, CO, CO2 and HC emissions from five commercial mPEMS to both laboratory and full regulatory PEMS measurements. It further examines the use of vehicle on-board diagnostics data to calculate exhaust flow, as an alternative to on-vehicle exhaust flow measurement. The evaluations include two vehicle types, gasoline direct injection and diesel, and employ the US EPA and Worldwide Harmonized Light duty drive cycles. The results show that two classes of electrochemical NOx sensors are capable of…
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Integrated Regenerative Braking System and Anti-lock Braking System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Battery Electric Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Yixin Yao, Yanan Zhao, Mark Yamazaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0846
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Regenerative braking in hybrid electric vehicles is a critical feature to achieve the maximum fuel economy benefit of hybridization. In order to maximize energy recuperation, it is desired to enable regenerative braking during an Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) event. For certain driveline configurations with a single electric motor connected to the axle shaft through an open differential, it has been observed that the regenerative braking torque can increase the wheel slip during the ABS operation, and significantly impact vehicle dynamics. This negative effect introduced by regen braking during ABS control may also lead to hardware failures, such as breaking a drive shaft. This paper describes development of an integrated regenerative braking and ABS control for hybrid and electric drive vehicles, referred to as RBS-ABS Event Control. This control is intended for drivelines containing a single electric motor connected to the axle shaft through an open differential. The design objectives are to recuperate the maximum amount of kinetic energy during an ABS event, and to provide no degraded anti-lock control behavior as seen in vehicles with…
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Fuel consumption on different drive cycles: A unified approach based on average power/weight

Ford Motor Company-Patrick Phlips, William Ruona, Thomas Megli, Mrudula Orpe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1278
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In previous work we have shown that fuel consumption on a particular drive cycle is proportional to traction work, with an offset for powertrain losses. The finding applies to different drive cycles, but with different offsets. Following Soltic (2011), it is shown that if fuel usage and traction work are both expressed in terms of cycle average power, a wide range of drive cycles collapse to a single transfer function. Data for vehicles of different weights further collapses when normalized for weight, i.e. by working in power/weight (P/W). The fuel P/W is primarily a function of traction P/W, and secondarily of displacement/weight. The useful work or power definition is then expanded beyond the traction power to include electrical power for customer functions, and power to drive the air conditioning. With this expanded definition the linear powertrain transfer function can be applied not only to strictly defined regulatory drive cycles and procedures, but also to ‘real driving’ conditions that cover a much broader range of situations. When applied to hybrid electric vehicles, the method clearly shows…
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An Analysis of the Effects of Ventilation on Burn Patterns Resulting from Passenger Compartment Interior Fires

Ford Motor Company-James J. Engle, Jennifer L. Buckman, Jeff Williams, Erich Kemnitz, Eric Kalis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0923
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle fire investigators often use the existence of burn patterns and the amount and location of fire damage to determine the fire origin and its cause. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of ventilation location on the burn patterns and burn damage of passenger compartment fires. Four similar 20XX Ford Fusion vehicles were burned. The fire origin and first material ignited were the same for all four vehicles. In each test, a different door window was down for the duration of the burn test. Each vehicle was allowed to burn until the windshield, back glass, or another window, other than the window used for ventilation, failed, thus changing the ventilation pattern. At that point, the fire was extinguished. Temperatures were measured in the passenger compartment and video and still photography were recorded. Post-burn, the vehicle burn patterns were analyzed and conclusions drawn on: ability to determine a window was open during the fire, which window was open, the effect the open window had on burn patterns and burn damage, and the…
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An investigation into the Traction and Anti-Lock Braking System Control Design

Ford Motor Company-Jose Velazquez alcantar, Rajit Johri, Ming Kuang
University of California Davis-Louis Filipozzi, Francis Assadian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0997
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Wheel slip control is crucial to active safety control systems such as Traction Control System (TCS) and Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) that ensure the vehicle safety by maintaining the wheel slip in a stable region. For this reason, a wide variety of control methods has been implemented by both researchers and in the industry. Moreover, the use of new electro-hydraulic, electro-mechanical brakes and in-wheel electric motors allow for a finer control of the slip, which should further improve the vehicle dynamics and safety. In this paper, we compare two methods for wheel slip control: a loop-shaping Youla parametrization method, and a sliding mode control method. Each controller is designed based on a simple single wheel system. The benefits and drawbacks of both methods are adressed. Finally, the controller performance and stability robustness are then compared based on several metrics in a simulation using a high-fidelity vehicle model with several driving scenarios.
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Combustion and Emission Characteristics of SI and HCCI Combustion Fueled with DME and OME

Ford Motor Company-Jimi Tjong
Univ of Windsor-Xiao Yu, Navjot Singh Sandhu, Ming Zheng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1355
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
DME has been considered an alternative fuel to diesel fuel with promising benefits because of its high reactivity and volatility. Research shows that an engine fueled with DME will produce zero smoke emissions. However, the storage and the handling of the fuel are underlying difficulties owing to its high vapour pressure (530 kPa @ 20 °C). In lieu, OME fuel, a derivate of DME, offers advantages exhibited with DME fuel, all the while being a liquid fuel for engine application. In this work, engine tests are performed to realize the combustion behaviour of DME and OME fuel on a single-cylinder research engine with a compression ratio of 9.2:1. The dilution ratio of the mixture is progressively increased in two manners, allowing more air in the cylinder and applying exhaust gas recirculation. The high reactivity of DME suits the capability to be used in compression ignition combustion whereas OME must be supplied with a supplemental spark to initiate the combustion. The results indicate that a low-temperature heat release (LTHR) is present during the combustion of DME…
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Virtual Verification of Wrecker Tow Requirements

Ford Motor Company-Majid Tabesh, Steven Foster, Sethuprasant Boomipaulraj, Arthur Gariepy
Ford Motor Co Ltd-Jim Alanoly
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0766
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Under various real world scenarios, vehicles can become disabled and require towing. OEM’s allow a few options for vehicle wrecker towing that include wheel lift tow using a stinger or towing on a flatbed. These methods entail multiple loading events that need to be assessed for damage to the towed vehicle. OEMS have several testing and evaluation methodologies in place for those scenarios with majority requiring physical vehicle prototypes. Recent focus to reduce product development time and cost has replaced the need for prototype testing with analytical verification methods. In this paper, the CAE method involving multibody dynamic simulation (MBS) as well as finite element analysis (FEA) of vehicle flatbed operation, winching onto a flatbed and stinger-pull towing methods are discussed. The simulations evaluate and address events such as bumper and underbody parts impact with the ground, subframe impact with the stinger arm, chain loading on the body, as well as winch cable contact with underbody parts. MBS-FEA co-simulations appear to be computationally expensive and, more importantly, target only a specific vehicle configuration and loading…
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Revisiting "Head Impact Power" (HIP): Considerations of Direction, Duration, and Attendant Risk Curves

Ford Motor Company-Tony Laituri, Jonathan S. Wood, Scott Henry
Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Kevin Pline, Raed E. El-Jawahri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0521
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Our objective was to derive brain risk curves for three related metrics: Head Impact Power (HIP), Power Index (PI), and a new duration-based form (T*MPI^n). HIP was from Newman, who defined it as the peak value of a time history based on the linear combination of mechanical power in six directions (three translation, three rotation). Those components of HIP went unscaled (i.e., set to unity). PI was a natural extension of HIP from Newman, who conceptualized it to involve non-uniform scaling to address potential directional sensitivity; however, the scaling factors were not estimated. Kleiven subsequently advanced the PI concept by positing anisotropic effects for three directions (two translational, one rotational), which yielded nine unknown scaling factors. He used a human brain model to estimate them for subdural hematoma. T*MPI^n is from the present study, wherein “T” is the PI-based duration, “MPI” is the mean PI in that time window, and “n” is an unknown exponent. In this three-part study, we will (1) generate a dataset of estimated head-acceleration time histories pertaining to risky events with…
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The GTU – A New Realistic Generic Pickup Truck and SUV Model

Ford Motor Company-Sudesh Woodiga, Kevin Howard, Paul Norman, Neil Lewington, Robert Carstairs, Burkhard Hupertz, Karel Chalupa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0664
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Traditionally, ground vehicle aerodynamics has been researched with highly simplified models such as the Ahmed body and the SAE model. These models established and advanced the fundamental understanding of bluff body aerodynamics and have generated a large body of published data, however, their application to the development of passenger vehicles is limited by the highly idealized nature of their geometries. To date, limited data has been openly published on aerodynamic investigations of production vehicles, most likely due to the proprietary nature of production vehicle geometry. In 2012, Heft et al. introduced the realistic generic car model ‘DrivAer’ that better represents the flow physics associated with a typical production vehicle. The introduction of the DrivAer model has led to a broad set of published data for both physical and computational investigations and the DrivAer model has proven itself invaluable as a tool for the correlation and calibration of wind tunnels, the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and increasing the understanding of the fundamental flow physics around passenger vehicles. Automotive sales trends in the United…
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An LQR Approach of Automatic Transmission Upshift Control Including Use of Off-going Clutch within Inertia Phase

Ford Motor Company-Vladimir Ivanovic, Yijing Zhang, Yuji Fujii
Univ of Zagreb-Ivan Cvok, Josko Deur
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0970
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The paper first demonstrates, based on control trajectory optimization results, that using the off-going clutch during the inertia phase along with the main, oncoming clutch can improve the performance an automatic transmission (AT) upshift control in terms of faster and/or more comfortable shift, while sacrificing transmission efficiency and control simplicity to some extent. The use of linear quadratic regulation (LQR) in upshift control is beneficial from the standpoint of optimality of multi-input control action, and the possibility to set a trade-off between the aforementioned conflicting criteria. The proposed LQR cost function includes two conflicting criteria related to driving comfort and clutch thermal energy loss, while the third criterion related to shift duration is determined by imposing a linear profile of oncoming clutch slip-speed reference, shown to be nearly-optimal based on control trajectory optimization. A special emphasis is on proper implementation of nonlinear energy loss term through linear LQR cost function cross term and using a clipped optimal control approach to provide that the clutches (described as torque source elements) can only dissipate energy. The LQR…