Your Selections

Ford Motor Company
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

 

Brake Pedal Feeling Comfort Analysis for Trucks with Pneumatic Brake System

Ford Motor Company-Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Silvia Faria Iombriller, Marco Andre Silva, Lázaro Renato Oliveira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2140
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The brake pedal is the brake system component that the driver fundamentally has contact and through its action wait the response of the whole system. Each OEM defines during vehicle conceptualization the behavior of brake pedal that characterizes the pedal feel that in general reflects not only the characteristic from that vehicle but also from the entire brand.Technically, the term known as Pedal Feel means the relation between the force applied on the pedal, the pedal travel and the deceleration achieved by the vehicle. Such relation curves are also analyzed in conjunction with objective analysis sheets where the vehicle brake behavior is analyzed in test track considering different deceleration conditions, force and pedal travel.On technical literature, it is possible to find some data and studies considering the hydraulic brakes behavior. However, for pneumatic brake systems, the pedal feel theoretical study is not usual, where is normally used for these developments, exclusively the subjective evaluation which become necessary to have more specialists to define the brake pedal behavior.Throughout this article will be revised the characteristics concepts…
 

Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Marco Andre Silva
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2141
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Analysis of road accident has showed that an important portion of fatal crashes involving commercial vehicles is caused by rollovers. ESC systems in commercial vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurences of jackknifing conditions. Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov 1st 2014 for all new vehicles), including commercial vehicles, trucks and trailers. On 2015, NHTSA published Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 136, Electronic stability control systems for heavy vehicles, requiring electronic stability control (ESC) systems on truck tractors and buses with a gross vehicle weight rating greater than 11,793 kilograms (26,000 pounds) that were implemented until 2017. In South America, CONTRAN Resolution 641/2016 establishes mandatory installation of Electronic Stability…
 

Piston Bowl Geometry Effects on Combustion Development in a High-Speed Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Ford Motor Company-Eric Kurtz
Sandia National Laboratories-Stephen Busch, Kan Zha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0167
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In this work, we studied the effects of piston bowl design on combustion in a light-duty direct-injection diesel engine. Two bowl designs were compared: a conventional, omega-shaped bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Experiments were carried out in the SNL single-cylinder optical engine facility, with a medium-load, mild-boosted operating condition featuring a pilot+main injection strategy. CFD simulations carried out with the FRESCO platform featuring full-geometric modeling of the engine, were validated against measured in-cylinder performance as well as soot natural luminosity images. Differences in combustion development were studied using the simulation results, and sensitivities to in-cylinder flow field (swirl ratio) and injection rate parameters were also analyzed. In-cylinder mixture formation analysis showed that ignition of the pilot injection mixture develops nearly as a homogeneous adiabatic reactor, being mostly advected, not mixed, by the bowl’s swirling motion, while its timing is influenced by the local flow field. Local in-cylinder flow is also more crucial than injection parameters to igniting the main injection’s premixed fuel, as it determines the relative overlap with the high-temperature pilot ignited mixture.…
 

Optimal Pressure Relief Groove Geometry for Improved NVH Performance of Variable Displacement Oil Pumps

Ford Motor Company-Abdelkrim Zouani, Vidya Marri
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Variable Displacement Oil Pump (VDOP) is becoming the design of choice for engine friction reduction and fuel economy improvement. Unfortunately, this pump creates excessive pressure ripples, at the outlet port during oil pump shaft rotation, causing oscillating forces within the lubrication system and leading to the generation of objectionable tonal noises and vibrations. In order to minimize the level of noise, different vanes spacing and porting geometries are used. Moreover, an oil pressure relief groove can be added, at the onset of the high pressure port, to achieve this goal.This paper presents an optimization method to identify the best geometry of the oil pressure relief groove. This method integrates adaptive meshing, 3D CFD simulation, Matlab routine and Genetic Algorithm based optimization. The genetic algorithm is used to create the required design space in order to perform a multi-objective optimization using a large number of parameterized groove geometries. Results of this optimization method are discussed and a design guideline for the oil pressure relief groove is disclosed.
Datasets icon
Annotation icon
 

Target Development for Transmission and Electric Motor NVH

Ford Motor Company-Justin Dech, Frederick Vanhaaften, Matthew Hettenhouse
FEV North America, Inc.-Todd Tousignant, Alex Ford, Kiran Govindswamy
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
It is a common practice to conduct NVH fingerprinting and benchmarking assessments at the powertrain level, to understand source level noise and vibration. To assess the NVH influence of engine, e-motor, and transmission, sub-system testing is often conducted in addition to full powertrain testing. These powertrain or sub-system investigations provide valuable information regarding the status of “source” level excitations relative to targets and / or competitive powertrains. In the case of transmissions and e-machines, it is particularly important to understand source level tonal content and how this will be perceived at the vehicle level. However, variation in component design results in differences in order content, which complicates the process of objectively comparing multiple products.Multiple methods are presented here for characterizing tonal content of transmission and e-machines, based on assessments conducted in a component hemi-anechoic dynamometer test cell. Ultimately, sound quality is assessed by the customer at the vehicle level. Accordingly, the methods developed incorporate means of cascading results between component level and vehicle level. Furthermore, since the perception of tonal noise content is dependent upon…
Annotation icon
 

Augmenting Vehicle Production Audit with Objective Data and Sound Quality Metrics to Improve Customer Experience in a Changing Automotive Landscape

Ford Motor Company-Mark Sturgill
Bruel & Kjaer Sound and Vibration A/S-Brian Thom, Gabriella Cerrato
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle manufacturers face increasing challenges in auditing the build quality of their vehicles while considering increasing consumer demands regarding NVH performance. This effect is compounded with the rise in electric and hybrid vehicles. The ability to audit vehicles for a variety of noise types is becoming increasingly important; these include powertrain noise, road noise, and wind noise. An automated measurement system was developed with specific algorithms and sound quality metrics to not only audit vehicle production quality but to add objective data, pass-fail criteria, and trend analysis.
Annotation icon
 

Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor Casing Treatment for Improved BPF Noise Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Ford Motor Company-Ahsanul Karim, Chris Tiernan, Keith Miazgowicz, Ted Mull
Ford Powertrain Operations-Anthony Morelli
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The conventional ported shroud recirculation casing treatment elevates narrowband noise at blade pass frequency. A new ported shroud recirculating casing treatment was implemented in Ford’s 3.5L turbo gas engine as Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) counter measure to reduce whoosh (broadband flow noise) noise without elevating narrowband noise at blade pass frequency. The new ported shroud design incorporates holes between the main and secondary recirculating passage and a slight cross-sectional area reduction just upstream of the impeller. These design features reduce whoosh noise without elevating the first order and the sixth order tonal noise at blade pass frequency. The new ported shroud design decreases narrowband tonal noise sound pressure level by 3-6 dB in the low to mid flow region compared to the baseline design. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools were used to develop this casing treatment design.
Annotation icon
 

Surge Prediction in a Single Sequential Turbocharger (SST) Compressor Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Ford Motor Company-Ahsanul Karim, Robert Wade, Keith Miazgowicz, Brian Lizotte
Ford Powertrain Operations-Anthony Morelli
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The Single Sequential Turbocharger (SST) used in Ford’s 6.7L Scorpion Diesel is analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to draw conclusions about the compressor stability at low mass flows. The SST compressor concept consists of a double-sided wheel which flows in parallel fed by two separate inlets (front and rear), followed by a single vane-less diffuser, and a volute. CFD simulations for the full stage are performed at low mass flow rates Both, front and rear, sides have ported shroud casing-treatment (CT) in the inlet region. An objective of the analysis is to determine which side of the SST unit compressor (front or rear on the double-sided wheel) suffers flow break down first as the mass flow is reduced, and its impact on the overall stability of the SST compressor. Another objective is to better understand the interactions between the compressor inlet flow and the flow through the casing-treatment. It has been observed that these interactions reduce the effectiveness of the front ported shroud casing-treatment in the selected geometry. This leads to a breakdown of…
Datasets icon
Annotation icon
 

Integrated Multi-Physics Simulation for Full-Vehicle Low Frequency NVH Optimization in HEVs

Ford Motor Company-Jack Liu
Gamma Technologies LLC-Llorenc Foraste Gomez, Jonathan Zeman
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The recent automotive industry trend towards electrification has created new challenges for NVH engineers. These challenges stem from new powertrain architectures and their complex interactions, the governing control strategies which aim to optimize energy management, and new unmasked sources of excitation. Additionally, vehicle manufacturers are attempting to reduce hardware testing in order to rapidly satisfy increasing production demand and to minimize its costs. Hence, to meet the above-mentioned challenges up front in the development process of Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs) while balancing competing design objectives of drivability, durability and NVH, a simulation-led design and optimization is required.NVH problems are often the result of mechanisms that originate through complex interactions between different physical domains (flow, electromagnetic, structural/mechanical, control logic, etc.) and the assembly of individual components into a complete system. Therefore, accurate system-level integrated models are becoming a requirement to solve modern NVH problems.Combining the optimal balance between simulation and experimental data, this article describes a joint effort between Ford and Gamma Technologies to develop a general methodology to perform full-vehicle low frequency NVH analysis. Using…
Annotation icon
 

Testing Methods and Signal Processing Strategies for Automatic Transmission Transient Multiplexed Pressure Data

Ford Motor Company-Steve Frait, Ram Sudarsan Devendran
Michigan Technological University-Mark Woodland, Jason Blough, Darrell Robinette, Carl Anderson
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Transmissions have multiple transient events that occur from gear shifting to torque converter clutch application. These transients can be difficult to capture and observe. A six speed front wheeled drive transmission was instrumented with pressure transducers to measure clutches and the torque converter. Due to size restrictions internal to the torque converter the data had to be multiplexed across three different transmitters. A method to capture a transient event through the use of multiplexed data was developed to create a data set with the transient event occurring on each channel. Once testing is completed, the data has to be split into individual channels and synced with the operational data. The data then can be used in both time and frequency domain analysis. It is important to understand that the data is not continuous and must be taken into consideration when post processing it for further results.
Datasets icon
Annotation icon