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Experimental Investigations on Engine-Out Emissions Sensitivity to Fuel Injection Pressure of a High-Performance DISI Single Cylinder Engine

Ferrari S.p.A.-Vincenzo Rossi, Nicola Silvestri, Massimo Medda
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In recent times, complying with increasingly stringent emission regulations has become ever more challenging than before. While an efficient after-treatment system, that includes a gasoline particulate filter, enables compliance with legislation requirements, lowering engine-out emissions by improving the combustion system must be considered as a crucial advantage for both pollutants emission control and performance. In this respect, high-performance enabling contents such as relatively large displacement, flow-capacity oriented intake ports and a limited stroke-to-bore ratio have significant drawbacks on the charge motion quality and, consequently, on mixture formation and homogeneity. As a countermeasure, fuel injection system components, as well as control strategies, need to be substantially improved. The increase of fuel injection pressure, coupled with optimized injection timing and splitting, has proven to be effective in reducing emissions, especially with regard to particulate matter. This paper provides results of an experimental study investigating the effect of different fuel injection strategies on engine-out emissions, with special emphasis on the influence of very high fuel injection pressures (up to 50 MPa) on particulate matter. A multi-hole inwardly-opening fuel…
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A Methodology for Modeling the Cat-Heating Transient Phase in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

Ferrari S.p.A.-Francesco Pulvirenti, Matteo Cucchi, Vincenzo Rossi
Politecnico di Torino-Federico Millo, Luciano Rolando, Alessandro Zanelli
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the modeling of the transient phase of catalyst heating on a high-performance turbocharged spark ignition engine with the aim to accurately predict the exhaust thermal energy available at the catalyst inlet and to provide a “virtual test rig” to assess different design and calibration options.The entire transient phase, starting from the engine cranking until the catalyst warm-up is completed, was taken into account in the simulation, and the model was validated using a wide data-set of experimental tests.The first step of the modeling activity was the combustion analysis during the transient phase: the burn rate was evaluated on the basis of experimental in-cylinder pressure data, considering both cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder variations.Then, as far as the exhaust temperatures are concerned, a detailed model of the thermocouples was implemented to replicate the physical behavior of the sensors during the warm-up and to compare the simulated temperatures with the measured ones.Finally, a complete analysis of the energy balance during the transient was carried out: the thermal power available to the catalyst inlet was obtained from…
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Assessment of Combustion Mechanical Noise Separation Techniques on a V8 Engine

Ferrari S.p.A.-Claudio Manna
KU Leuven-Konstantinos Gryllias
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The noise radiated by an ICE engine results from a mixture of various complex sources such as combustion, injection, piston slap, turbocharger, etc. Some of these have been categorized as combustion related noise and others as mechanical noise. Of great concern is the assessment of combustion noise which, under some operating conditions, is likely to predominate over the other sources of noise. The residual noise, produced by various other sources, is commonly referred to as mechanical noise. Being able to extract combustion and mechanical noise is of prime interest in the development phase of the engine and also for diagnostic purposes.This paper presents the application of combustion mechanical noise separation techniques on a V8 engine. Three techniques, namely the multi regression analysis, the classical Wiener filter and the cyclostationary (synchronous) Wiener filter, have been investigated. The techniques have been applied to microphone recordings measured at one meter distance from an engine running on a test bench. Reference in-cylinder pressure sensors have been instrumented and synchronously acquired together with the microphones. Strengths and weaknesses of the…
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CFD Analysis of the Effects of Fuel Composition and Injection Strategy on Mixture Preparation and Fuel Deposit Formation in a GDI Engine

Ferrari S.p.A-Francesco Pulvirenti
Ferrari S.p.A.-Stefano Paltrinieri
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
In spark-ignited direct-injected engines, the formation of fuel pools on the piston is one of the major promoters of unburnt hydrocarbons and soot: in order to comply with the increasingly stringent emission regulations (EU6 and forthcoming), it is therefore necessary to limit fuel deposit formation. The combined use of advanced experimental techniques and detailed 3D-CFD simulations can help to understand the mechanisms driving fuel pool formation. In the paper, a combined experimental and numerical characterization of pool formation in a GDI engine is carried out to investigate and understand the complex interplay of all the mentioned factors. In particular, a low-load low-rpm engine operation is investigated for different ignition phasing, and the impact of both fuel formulation and instantaneous piston temperature variations in the CFD analyses are evaluated. The investigated engine operation shows some interesting features which are suited to deeply investigate the interplay between fuel film formation, mixing and soot. In particular, the relatively low wall temperature and low injection pressure allow the fuel to form deposits and then slowly evaporate, with possible presence…
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High-Performance Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Design Studies and Considerations

Ferrari S.p.A.-Fabrizio Favaretto, Franco Cimatti
Georgia Institute of Technology-Justin Wilbanks, Michael Leamy
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a detailed design study and associated considerations supporting the development of high-performance plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Due to increasingly strict governmental regulations and increased consumer demand, automotive manufacturers have been tasked with the reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. PHEV powertrains can provide a needed balance in terms of fuel economy and vehicle performance by exploiting regenerative braking, pure electric vehicle operation, engine load-point shifting, and power-enhancing hybrid traction modes. Thus, properly designed PHEV powertrains can reduce fuel consumption while increasing vehicle utility and performance. The existence of a multitude of PHEV architectures capable of being incorporated into existing high-performance vehicles necessitates development of simulation exercises which can assist in selecting the optimal architecture as well as aid in specifying and selecting critical components, such as the size of the electric machines and the capacity of the battery pack. As a test case, the Ferrari FF platform with a naturally aspirated V12 engine was chosen to assess two proposed PHEV architectures in terms of yielded vehicle performance and…
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Primary Breakup Model for Turbulent Liquid Jet Based on Ligament Evolution

Ferrari S.p.A.-Alessandro Tiberi
University of Bologna-Federico Brusiani, Gian Marco Bianchi
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The overall performance of direct injection (DI) engines is strictly correlated to the fuel liquid spray evolution into the cylinder volume. More in detail, spray behavior can drastically affect mixture formation, combustion efficiency, cycle to cycle engine variability, soot amount, and lubricant contamination. For this reason, in DI engine an accurate numerical reproduction of the spray behavior is mandatory. In order to improve the spray simulation accuracy, authors defined a new atomization model based on experimental evidences about ligament and droplet formations from a turbulent liquid jet surface. The proposed atomization approach was based on the assumption that the droplet stripping in a turbulent liquid jet is mainly linked to ligament formations. Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulation method was adopted for the continuum phase while the liquid discrete phase is managed by Lagrangian approach. To simulate the complete evolution of the injected droplets, the proposed atomization model was coupled to a secondary breakup model based on Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability equations. The KH secondary breakup model was tuned in order to provide non-dimensional breakup time fitting…
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Validation of a CFD Methodology for the Analysis of Conjugate Heat Transfer in a High Performance SI Engine

Ferrari S.p.A.-Gianluca Pivetti
Universita' di Modena e Reggio Emilia-Stefano Fontanesi, Giuseppe Cicalese
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
The paper presents a combined experimental and numerical activity carried out to improve the accuracy of conjugate heat transfer CFD simulations of a high-performance S.I. engine water cooling jacket.Due to the complexity of the computational domain, which covers both the coolant jacket and the surrounding metal cast (both head and block), particular care is required in order to find a tradeoff between the accuracy and the cost-effectiveness of the numerical procedure. In view of the presence of many complex physical phenomena, the contribution of some relevant CFD parameters and sub-models is separately evaluated and discussed.Among the formers, the extent of the computational domain, the choice of a proper set of boundary conditions and the detailed representation of the physical properties of the involved materials are separately considered. Among the latters, the choice between a simplified single-phase approach and a more complex two-phase approach taking into account the effects of phase transition within the engine coolant is discussed.The predictive capability of the CFD-CHT methodology is assessed by means of the comparison between CFD results and experimental…
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Development of a Control Strategy for a Suspension System with an Active Variable Kinematics

Ferrari S.p.A.-Franco Cimatti
Politecnico di Milano-Edoardo Sabbioni, Federico Cheli, Francesco braghin
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Active and semi-active suspension systems are widely diffused into the automotive industry. Most of the proposed devices try to achieve a better compromise between handling and comfort requirements by replacing traditional springs, shock absorbers and antiroll bars with active or semi-active actuators allowing to change suspension stiffness and damping according to a suitable control strategy. An alternative way for controlling passenger car suspensions is proposed in this paper. Traditional passive springs and dampers are maintained, while the geometry of the suspension and thus its kinematics is actively varied. By changing the suspension geometry, spring and damper rates are in fact varied, this modifying the vertical load on the tire and/or the vehicle height from the ground. Among the advantages concerned with this device, the most significant ones are that antiroll bars can be avoided (thus increasing the vehicle interior spaciousness), vehicle aerodynamics can be improved by regulating the vehicle height and vertical loads distribution can be modified during turns. The layout of a double wishbone suspension has thus been adapted and optimized in order to…
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Road Vehicle Robust Design: Chassis and Suspension Tolerances Impact on the Handling and Stability Behaviour

Ferrari S.p.A.-Matteo Lanzavecchia
GTV Vehicle Dynamics-Paolo Maria Radice
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper introduces a technique to analyze the influence of the chassis and suspension manufacturing tolerances on the road vehicles handling.A study on the components tolerances and bushing stiffness has been conducted to evaluate the vehicle handling and stability indexes variations (understeer and sideslip gradient, gains and phases in frequency domain, etc.).The procedure starts with the 3D model creation, in a CAD environment, of all the components which establish a vehicle suspension assembly. Then, a Computer Aided Tolerance (CAT) software allows to calculate the suspension system tolerance chain in order to identify the equivalent tolerance of the main suspension kinematic points. Furthermore, a multibody full vehicle model has been developed to run a wide set of simulations of quasi-static and transient manoeuvres used to define response diagrams tolerance. A Monte Carlo Design of Experiment is applied to perform all the simulations, to reproduce all the possible kinematic points location and all the possible bushing stiffness (both according to their manufacturing variation). After the investigation, the statistical correlation between chassis and suspension components tolerance and full…
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Backpressure Optimized Metal Supported Close Coupled PE Catalyst - First Application on a Maserati Powertrain

Ferrari S.p.A.-Corrado Iotti, Vincenzo Rossi, Luca Poggio
ArvinMeritor-Mathias Holzinger
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Future stringent emission limits both in the European Community and USA require continuously increased conversion efficiency of exhaust after-treatment systems.Besides the obvious targets of fastest light-off performance, overall conversion efficiency and durability, catalytic converters for maximum output engines require highly optimized flow properties as well, in order to create minimum exhaust backpressure for low fuel consumption.This work deals with the design, development and serial introduction of a close coupled main catalyst system using the innovative technology of Perforated Foils (PE).By means of PE-technology, channel-to-channel gas mixing within the metal substrate could be achieved leading to dramatically reduced backpressure values compared with the conventional design.Due to the highly improved flow properties of the advanced metal substrate, a compact converter could be designed taking into account the demanding packaging constraints in a modern V8 engine compartment.The present paper consists of numerical simulations, flow bench and engine test bench measurements carried out to assess emission performance, backpressure advantage and engine power output increase of a close-coupled single brick system compliant with LEV-II and EU4 emission limits.
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