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Super Ultra-Low NOX Emissions under Extended RDE Conditions - Evaluation of Light-Off Strategies of Advanced Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

FEV GmbH-Kai Deppenkemper, Markus Ehrly lng, Markus Schoenen, Matthias Koetter
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Super ultra-low NOX emission engine concepts are essential to comply with future emission legislations. To meet the future emission standards, application of advanced diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems (EATS), such as Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Lean NOX Trap (LNT), Selective Catalytic Reduction coatings on Soot Filters (SCRF) and underfloor SCR, is required. Effective customized thermal management strategies are essential to ensure fast light-off of the EATS after engine cold start, and to avoid significant cooldown during part load operation.The authors describes the investigation of different exhaust gas heating measures, such as intake throttling, late fuel injection, exhaust throttling, advanced exhaust cam phasing, retarded intake cam phasing, cylinder deactivation, full turbine bypass, electric catalyst heating and electrically heated intake manifold strategies. For those investigations, a steady-state GT-Power simulation model of a state-of-the-art EU6c 2.0 L diesel engine, equipped with high and low pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and 2-stage boosting, was used. The results were then transferred to FEV´s complete powertrain simulation platform. As representative vehicles, a C segment car, a compact SUV and a light duty…
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Accurate Mean Value Process Models for Model-Based Engine Control Concepts by Means of Hybrid Modeling

FEV GmbH-Christian Joerg, Christoph Reuber, Joschka Schaub, Matthias Koetter, Silja Thewes, Ronnie Thattaradiyil
RWTH Aachen University-Sung-Yong Lee, Jakob Andert
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Advanced powertrains for modern vehicles require the optimization of conventional combustion engines in combination with tailored electrification and vehicle connectivity strategies. The resulting systems and their control devices feature many degrees of freedom with a large number of available adjustment parameters. This obviously presents major challenges to the development of the corresponding powertrain control logics. Hence, the identification of an optimal system calibration is a non-trivial task.To address this situation, physics-based control approaches are evolving and successively replacing conventional map-based control strategies in order to handle more complex powertrain topologies. Physics-based control approaches enable a significant reduction in calibration effort, and also improve the control robustness. However, due to the requirement of real-time capability, physical models have to be formulated via simplified mean value approaches, which in turn limits the control accuracy.To eliminate the constraints of a purely physics-based control approach, the underlying physical process model can be augmented by an additional data-driven model. For this purpose, an artificial neural network or a Gaussian Process model can be considered amongst others. Data driven models can…
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Bharat Stage-V Solutions for Agricultural Engines for India Market

FEV GmbH-Markus Schoenen, Stefano Ghetti
FEV Europe GmbH-Maurice Smeets
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The Bharat Stage (CEV/Tractor) IV & V emission legislations will come into force in Oct 2020 & Apr 2024 respectively, posing a major engineering challenge in terms of system complexity, reliability, costs and development time. Solutions for the EU Stage-V NRMM legislation in Europe, from which the BS-V limits are derived, have been developed and are ready for implementation.To a certain extent these European solutions can be transferred to the Indian market. However, certain market-specific challenges are yet to be defined and addressed. In addition, a challenging timeline has to be considered for application of advanced technologies and processes during the product development. In this presentation, the emission roadmap will be introduced in the beginning, followed by a discussion of potential technology solutions on the engine itself as well as on the after treatment components. This includes boosting and fuel injection technologies as well as different exhaust gas recirculation methods. Diesel engine concepts like SCR/SCRF only or SCR/SCRF plus EGR solutions, will also be discussed in addition to advanced engine and after treatment models for…
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Development of a New 1.8L Down-Speeding Turbocharged Gasoline Engine with Miller Cycle

FEV GmbH-Carsten Dieterich, Mike Souren, Bastian Morcinkowski
Dongfeng Liuzhou Motor Corporation-Kefu Yao, Mingxiang Zhao
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Upcoming China 4th stage of fuel consumption regulation and China 6a emission legislation require improvement of many existing engines. This paper summarizes an upgrade of combustion system and mechanical layout for a four-cylinder engine family. Based on an existing production process for a naturally aspirated 2.0-liter gasoline engine, a 1.8-liter down-speeded and turbocharged gasoline engine is derived. Starting development by analysis of engine base geometry, a layout for a Miller-Cycle gas exchange with early closing of intake valves is chosen. Requirements on turbocharger configuration are investigated with one-dimensional gas exchange simulation and combustion process will be analyzed by means of 3D-CFD simulation. Challenging boundary conditions of a very moderate long-stroke layout with a stroke/bore-ratio of only 1.037 in combination with a cost efficient port fuel injection system and fixed valve lift profiles are considered. To compensate reduced in-cylinder charge motion of small valve lift three measures are taken. Firstly, the intake port is modified for significantly increased tumble motion at higher valve lift. This is combined with a masking of the intake valve area in…
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1D Engine Simulation Approach for Optimizing Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Thermal Management for Passenger Car Diesel Engines by Means of Variable Valve Train (VVT) Applications

FEV GmbH-Markus Ehrly, Markus Schoenen, Dirk Bergmann
RWTH Aachen University-Kai Deppenkemper, Can Özyalcin, Stefan Pischinger
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Using a holistic 1D engine simulation approach for the modelling of full-transient engine operation, allows analyzing future engine concepts, including its exhaust gas aftertreatment technology, early in the development process. Thus, this approach enables the investigation of both important fields - the thermodynamic engine process and the aftertreatment system, together with their interaction in a single simulation environment. Regarding the aftertreatment system, the kinetic reaction behavior of state-of-the-art and advanced components, such as Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction Soot Filters (SCRF), is being modelled.Furthermore, the authors present the use of the 1D engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment model on use cases of variable valve train (VVT) applications on passenger car (PC) diesel engines. The VVT applications consider a wide range of variables such as exhaust cam phasing, late intake valve opening, Miller, 2nd exhaust event and cylinder deactivation. The model has been validated with the results of experimental investigations to do this in a first step. Secondly, the VVT applications are implemented to the model to analyze their heating potential according to…
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In-Use Compliance Opportunity for Diesel Powertrains

FEV GmbH-Korfer Thomas
FEV Europe GmbH-Marcel Romijn
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In-use compliance under LEV III emission standards, GHG, and fuel economy targets beyond 2025 poses a great opportunity for all ICE-based propulsion systems, especially for light-duty diesel powertrain and aftertreatment enhancement. Though diesel powertrains feature excellent fuel-efficiency, robust and complete emissions controls covering any possible operational profiles and duty cycles has always been a challenge. Significant dependency on aftertreatment calibration and configuration has become a norm. With the onset of hybridization and downsizing, small steps of improvement in system stability have shown a promising avenue for enhancing fuel economy while continuously improving emissions robustness. In this paper, a study of current key technologies and associated emissions robustness will be discussed followed by engine and aftertreatment performance target derivations for LEV III compliant powertrains. The core of the discussion will be focused on identifying opportunities in engine and aftertreatment hardware and controls to position the diesel applications appropriately for future in-use compliance. Additionally, the authors will discuss the potential diesel powertrain hardware enhancements that could deliver improved emissions robustness while saving fuel, in real-world operation. Since…
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λDSF: Dynamic Skip Fire with Homogeneous Lean Burn for Improved Fuel Consumption, Emissions and Drivability

FEV GmbH-Andreas Müller, Sascha Tews, Andreas Balazs, Matthias Thewes
Tula Technology Inc.-Elliott Ortiz-Soto, Robert Wang, Masaki Nagashima, Matthew Younkins
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Dynamic skip fire (DSF) has shown significant fuel economy improvement potential via reduction of pumping losses that generally affect throttled spark-ignition (SI) engines. In DSF operation, individual cylinders are fired on-demand near peak efficiency to satisfy driver torque demand. For vehicles with a downsized-boosted 4-cylinder engine, DSF can reduce fuel consumption by 8% in the WLTC (Class 3) drive cycle. The relatively low cost of cylinder deactivation hardware further improves the production value of DSF.Lean burn strategies in gasoline engines have also demonstrated significant fuel efficiency gains resulting from reduced pumping losses and improved thermodynamic characteristics, such as higher specific heat ratio and lower heat losses. Fuel-air mixture stratification is generally required to achieve stable combustion at low loads. However, stratified operation suffers from higher particulate emissions and the required quiescent combustion chamber compromises the efficiency of homogeneous lean and stoichiometric operation at higher loads. Alternatively, a homogeneous lean burn engine would switch to throttled, stoichiometric operation at low loads, which would incur a significant fuel consumption penalty.This article introduces the concept of λDSF (pronounced…
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Next-Generation Low-Voltage Power Nets Impacts of Advanced Stop/Start and Sailing Functionalities

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

FEV GmbH-Dejan Jolovic
VKA, RWTH Aachen University-Philip Griefnow, Jakob Andert
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0896
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The range of tasks in automotive electrical system development has clearly grown and now includes goals such as achieving efficiency requirements and complying with continuously reducing CO2 limits. Improvements in the vehicle electrical system, hereinafter referred to as the power net, are mandatory to face the challenges of increasing electrical energy consumption, new comfort and assistance functions, and further electrification. Novel power net topologies with dual batteries and dual voltages promise a significant increase in efficiency with moderate technological and financial effort. Depending on the vehicle segment, either an extension of established 12 V micro-hybrid technologies or 48 V mild hybridization is possible.Both technologies have the potential to reduce fuel consumption by implementing advanced stop/start and sailing functionalities. Additional engine-stop phases and even reduced driving resistance have positive impacts on the fuel consumption but lead to higher load on the electrical system and an energy deficit by reducing the recuperation and charging phases. Therefore, power net architecture and electrical energy management play an essential role with regard to safety and efficiency issues.The first step of…
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Metric-based Evaluation of Powertrain Software Architecture

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

FEV GmbH-Johannes Richenhagen
RWTH Aachen Univ.-Hariharan Venkitachalam, Christian Granrath
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1615
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Ensuring software quality is one of the key challenges associated with the development of automotive embedded systems. Software architecture plays a pivotal role in realizing functional and non-functional requirements for automotive embedded systems. Software architecture is a work-product of the early stages of software development. The design errors introduced at the early stages of development will increase cost of rework. Hence, an early evaluation of software architecture is important.PERSIST (Powertrain control architecture Enabling Reusable Software development for Intelligent System Tailoring) is a model-based software product line approach which focuses on cross-project standardization of powertrain software. The product line is characterized by common design guidelines and adherence to industry standards like ISO 25010, AUTOSAR and ISO 26262. This paper shows a systematic approach to ensure objective, early and repeated analysis of software architecture for the PERSIST product line using metrics. The systematic approach for architecture metrics involves the definition, implementation, measurement and, evaluation of the metrics for hybrid control unit software. With a new approach of architecture-driven development, this paper demonstrates how an early evaluation of…
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Meeting 2025 CAFE Standards for LDT with Fuel-Efficient Diesel Powertrains - Approaches and Solutions

FEV GmbH-Werner Bick, Christoph Menne
FEV Group Holding GmbH-Thomas Koerfer
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In view of changing climatic conditions all over the world, Green House Gas (GHG) saving related initiatives such as reducing the CO2 emissions from the mobility and transportation sectors have gained in importance. Therefore, with respect to the large U.S. market, the corresponding legal authorities have defined aggressive and challenging targets for the upcoming time frame. Due to several aspects and conditions, like hesitantly acting clients regarding electrically powered vehicles or low prices for fossil fuels, convincing and attractive products have to be developed to merge legal requirements with market constraints. This is especially valid for the market segment of Light-Duty vehicles, like SUV’S and Pick-Up trucks, which are in high demand. The modern DI Diesel engine has gained an increasing market share in the recent 25 years in the European market and has converted from a niche application to an established, highly appreciated propulsion system in the Light-Duty vehicle segment, covering passenger car as well as light commercial applications. In vehicle classes with high market penetration this low CO2 concept offers a substantial contribution…
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