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Effective Method for Active Sound Design

FEV Europe GmbH-Georg Eisele, Benedikt Streicher, Simon Lange, Christoph Steffens, Thomas Cazaux
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1539
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
In modern vehicle acoustics, Active Sound Design (ASD) is a popular method to enhance the interior sound perception of a vehicle. In vehicles with a traditional internal combustion engine, the load dependency of the sound can be increased to give better dynamic feedback. Annoying small-band resonances can be attenuated by boosting the surrounding frequency content, and downsized-engines can be made to sound like the larger ones from former days. However, once a characteristic sound is designed for a specific vehicle, it is a tedious process to transfer this lead-sound to derivatives with a deviating equipment (e.g. same model but different exhaust or audio system). So far, sound designers must adapt the ASD-dataset manually – usually this takes several loops of measuring the car’s interior sound on a track and adjusting the ASD-settings back in the office. This paper introduces a new method of a semi-automated transfer of the interior sound from a sender to a receiver vehicle by using ASD where the sender and every receiver vehicle must be measured only once. The novel software…
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NVH Comfort of Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles

FEV Europe GmbH-Christoph Steffens, Georg Eisele, Frank Wolter
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1551
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The most appreciated driving characteristics of electric vehicles are the quietness and spontaneous torque rise of the powertrain. The application of range extenders (REX) with internal combustion engines (ICEs) to increase the driving range is a favourable solution regarding costs and weight, especially in comparison with larger battery capacities. However, the NVH integration of a REX is challenging, if the generally silent driving characteristics of electric vehicles shall remain preserved. This paper analyses key NVH aspects for a REX design and integration to fulfil the high expectations regarding noise and vibration comfort in an electric vehicle environment. The ICE for a REX is typically dimensioned for lower power outputs, incorporating a low number of cylinder units, which is even more challenging concerning the NVH integration. The basic REX concept is evaluated by considering power and fuel efficiency demands in combination with an interior noise forecast. It will be explained that sophisticated, innovative technologies are required on component and vehicle side to ensure best possible NVH comfort. On component side, essential excitations must be addressed. In…
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Analysis of Drivability Influence on Tailpipe Emissions in Early Stages of a Vehicle Development Program by Means of Engine-in-the-Loop Test Benches

FEV Europe GmbH-Stefan Tegelkamp, Michael Görgen, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
RWTH Aachen University-Christian Heusch, Daniel Guse, Frank Dorscheidt, Johannes Claßen, Timm Fahrbach, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0373
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to increasing environmental awareness, standards for pollutant and CO2 emissions are getting stricter in most markets around the world. In important markets such as Europe, also the emissions during real road driving, so called “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE), are now part of the type approval process for passenger cars. In addition to the proceeding hybridization and electrification of vehicles, the complexity and degrees of freedom of conventional powertrains with internal combustion engines (ICE) are also continuing to increase in order to comply with stricter exhaust emission standards. Besides the different requirements placed on vehicle emissions, the drivability capabilities of passenger vehicles desired by customers, are essentially important and vary between markets. As the interactions between different hardware and software parts of the powertrain strongly influence the drivability characteristics of a vehicle, a high degree of maturity of test vehicles is required to execute drivability calibration tasks with a reliable evidence. Hence, these calibration and evaluation tasks are generally conducted in late phases of the vehicle development process where the engines base calibration is already…
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Investigations Regarding Deposit Formation on Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

FEV Europe GmbH-Bernhard Lüers
Technical University of Braunschweig-Kevin Friese, Peter Eilts
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1432
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Catalyst fouling by deposit formation on components in the exhaust aftertreatment system is critical since RDE limits must be obtained at any time. Besides, uncontrolled oxidation of carbonaceous deposits might damage the affected exhaust aftertreatment component. To comply with current and future emission standards, diesel engines are usually operated with high EGR rates leading to increased soot and hydrocarbon emissions, which increases the likeliness of the formation of carbonaceous deposits on EAT components. With this background, a research project investigating the influencing parameters and mechanisms of deposit formation on DOCs was carried out. In a follow-up project, the results will be used in order to compare different deposit removal strategies. Within the scope of the presented project, a reference driving cycle was developed in order to create deposits within a short time. The driving cycle was modified during further endurance runs and analyzed for changes in the deposit’s properties. Furthermore, the engine was operated using different fuels and under various operating modes. The stability of the deposits was highly affected by the engine operation mode…
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Relevance of Exhaust Aftertreatment System Degradation for EU7 Gasoline Engine Applications

FEV Europe GmbH-Michael Görgen, Jim Cox, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
RWTH Aachen University-Stefan Sterlepper, Johannes Claßen, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0382
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust aftertreatment systems must function sufficiently over the full useful life of a vehicle. In Europe this is currently defined as 160.000 km. With the introduction of Euro 7 it is expected that the required mileage will be extended to 240.000 km. This will then be consistent with the US legislation.In order to quantify the emission impact of exhaust system degradation, an Euro 7 exhaust aftertreatment system is aged by different accelerated approaches: application of the Standard Bench Cycle, the ZDAKW cycle, a novel ash loading method and borderline aging. The results depict the impact of oil ash on the oxygen storage capacity. For tailpipe emissions, the maximum peak temperatures are the dominant aging factor. The cold start performance is effected by both, thermal degradation and ash accumulation.An evaluation of this emission increase requires appropriate benchmarks. For this purpose, an analysis of the emission impacts of ambient temperatures, driving modes and particulate filter regenerations follows. The comparison shows the severe impact of very low ambient conditions. Considering the high statistical relevance of catalyst degradation however,…
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Objectified Evaluation and Classification of Passenger Vehicles Longitudinal Drivability Capabilities in Automated Load Change Drive Maneuvers at Engine-in-the-Loop Test Benches

FEV Europe GmbH-Stefan Tegelkamp, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
RWTH Aachen University-Daniel Guse, Christian Heusch, Serge Klein, Timm Fahrbach, Jakob Andert, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0245
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The growing number of passenger car variants and derivatives in all global markets, their high degree of software differentiability caused by regionally different legislative regulations, as well as pronounced market-specific customer expectations require a continuous optimization of the entire vehicle development process. In addition, ever stricter emission standards lead to a considerable increase in powertrain hardware and control complexity. Also, efforts to achieve market and brand specific multistep adjustable drivability characteristics as unique selling proposition, rapidly extend the scope for calibration and testing tasks during the development of powertrain control units. The resulting extent of interdependencies between the drivability calibration and other development and calibration tasks requires frontloading of development tasks. Usually, drivability calibration takes place towards the end of the vehicle development program as soon as a sufficient level of product maturity is achieved. Hence, for streamlining the entire development process, various powertrain engineering tasks need to be shifted from the overall vehicle level to component conception phases. In this context, highly dynamic and appropriated “Hardware-in-the-Loop” (HiL) component test benches are the means of…
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Air Induction Impact on Turbocharger Noise and Thermodynamic Performance

FEV Europe GmbH-Tobias Zimmermann
FCA US LLC-Shadi Saeed, Brian Butler, Mark Likich, Jeff Orzechowski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0426
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The trend to simultaneously improve fuel economy and engine performance has led to industry growth of turbocharged engines and as a result, the need to address their undesirable airborne noise attributes. This presents some unique engineering challenges as higher customer expectations for Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH), and other vehicle-level attributes increase over time. Turbocharged engines possess higher frequency noise content compared to naturally aspirated engines. Therefore, as an outcome, whoosh noise in the Air Induction System (AIS) during tip in conditions is an undesirable attribute that requires high frequency attenuation enablers. The traditional method for attenuation of this type of noise has been to use resonators which adds cost, weight and requires packaging space that is often at a premium in the under-hood environment. By improving our understanding of the root cause, we aim to develop AIS design strategies that can prevent unwanted noise from being generated at the source, while avoiding the need for traditional noise attenuation solutions. Additionally, a better understanding of any implication on compressor performance in terms of isentropic efficiency and…
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Experimental Proof-of-Concept of HiL Based Virtual Calibration for a Gasoline Engine with a Three-Way-Catalyst

FEV Europe GmbH-Pietro Gardini, Thomas Scheel, Vitali Walter, Jaykumar Kansagara Raul Tharmakulasingam, Marius Böhmer, Martin Nijs
Institute for Combustion Engines, RWTH Aachen University-Feihong Xia, Frank Dorscheidt, Stefan Lücke, Jakob Andert
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2301
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The increasing complexity of modern combustion engines together with the substantial variability of hybrid electric powertrains, lead to new challenges in function development, system integration and vehicle calibration processes. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulations have been introduced to front-load part of the testing and calibration tasks from the vehicle to a virtual environment. With this approach, the simulation quality and the cost-benefit ratio are strongly dependent on the accuracy of the plant modelling and the computational effort.This paper introduces a novel HiL simulation platform for an engine control unit (ECU) with a crank-angle resolved real-time model (GT-Power) for a gasoline engine with direct fuel injection, single stage turbocharging and a three-way catalyst. By simplifying the fluid dynamics simulation model from the concept phase, a good compromise between model accuracy and computation speed can be achieved with relatively low effort. The coupling of the engine model and the hardware ECU has been implemented using a realtime workstation with a co-simulation platform (xMOD) coupled to a HiL-simulator with the necessary I/O boards (dSPACE). The closed-loop boost pressure and the…
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Optical Spray Investigations on OME3-5 in a Constant Volume High Pressure Chamber

FEV Europe GmbH-Sandra Glueck, Markus Schoenen
RWTH Aachen Univ.-Christian Honecker, Marcel Neumann, Stefan Pischinger
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Oxygenated fuels such as polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (OME) offer a chance to significantly decrease emissions while switching to renewable fuels. However, compared to conventional diesel fuel, they have lower heating values and different evaporation behaviors which lead to differences in spray, mixture formation as well as ignition delay. In order to determine the mixture formation characteristics and the combustion behavior of neat OME3-5, optical investigations have been carried out in a high-pressure-chamber using shadowgraphy, mie-scatterlight and OH-radiation recordings. Liquid penetration length, gaseous penetration length, lift off length, spray cone angle and ignition delay have been determined and compared to those measured with diesel-fuel over a variety of pressures, temperatures, rail pressures and injection durations. Liquid penetration lengths for OME3-5-sprays were found to be shorter than that of diesel-fuel analogues, while lift-off-lengths were generally observed to be longer for OME3-5, resulting in longer gaseous mixing lengths. As the cetane numbers suggested, ignition delay was found to be shorter for OME3-5. Spray cone angles were reduced at low temperature and wider at high temperature, while gaseous penetration…
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Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

FEV Europe GmbH-Christof Schernus, Michael Görgen, Jim Cox, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
Corning GmbH-Dominik Rose, Thorsten Boger
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Especially for coated GPF applications, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. The paper presents key-findings for the different GPF application variants. In the first part, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Ash accumulates as thin wall layers and short plugs, but does not penetrate into the wall. However, it suppresses deep bed filtration of soot, initially decreasing the soot-loaded backpressure. For the emission calibration, the non-linear backpressure development complicates the soot load monitoring, eventually leading to compromises between high safety against soot overloading and a low number of active regenerations. In the second part, a relevant share of ash deposits inside three-way catalysts (TWC) is depicted. In an experiment, the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) of a three-way catalyst was significantly lowered by ash, while a coated GPF showed little effects. A subsequent OSC regeneration…
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