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Optical Spray Investigations on OME3-5 in a Constant Volume High Pressure Chamber

FEV Europe GmbH-Sandra Glueck, Markus Schoenen
RWTH Aachen Univ.-Christian Honecker, Marcel Neumann, Stefan Pischinger
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Oxygenated fuels such as polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (OME) offer a chance to significantly decrease emissions while switching to renewable fuels. However, compared to conventional diesel fuel, they have lower heating values and different evaporation behaviors which lead to differences in spray, mixture formation as well as ignition delay. In order to determine the mixture formation characteristics and the combustion behavior of neat OME3-5, optical investigations have been carried out in a high-pressure-chamber using shadowgraphy, mie-scatterlight and OH-radiation recordings. Liquid penetration length, gaseous penetration length, lift off length, spray cone angle and ignition delay have been determined and compared to those measured with diesel-fuel over a variety of pressures, temperatures, rail pressures and injection durations. Liquid penetration lengths for OME3-5-sprays were found to be shorter than that of diesel-fuel analogues, while lift-off-lengths were generally observed to be longer for OME3-5, resulting in longer gaseous mixing lengths. As the cetane numbers suggested, ignition delay was found to be shorter for OME3-5. Spray cone angles were reduced at low temperature and wider at high temperature, while gaseous penetration…
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Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

FEV Europe GmbH-Christof Schernus, Michael Görgen, Jim Cox, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
Corning GmbH-Dominik Rose, Thorsten Boger
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Especially for coated GPF applications, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. The paper presents key-findings for the different GPF application variants. In the first part, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Ash accumulates as thin wall layers and short plugs, but does not penetrate into the wall. However, it suppresses deep bed filtration of soot, initially decreasing the soot-loaded backpressure. For the emission calibration, the non-linear backpressure development complicates the soot load monitoring, eventually leading to compromises between high safety against soot overloading and a low number of active regenerations. In the second part, a relevant share of ash deposits inside three-way catalysts (TWC) is depicted. In an experiment, the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) of a three-way catalyst was significantly lowered by ash, while a coated GPF showed little effects. A subsequent OSC regeneration…
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Ultra-Lean Pre-Chamber Gasoline Engine for Future Hybrid Powertrains

FEV Europe GmbH-Knut Habermann
IFP Energies Nouvelles, Institut Carnot IFPEN TE-David Serrano, Jean-Marc Zaccardi
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Lean burn gasoline spark-ignition engines can support the reduction of CO2 emissions for future hybrid passenger cars. Very high efficiencies and very low NOx raw emissions can be achieved, if relative air/fuel ratios λ of 2 and above can be reached. The biggest challenge here is to assure a reliable ignition process and to enhance the fuel oxidation in order to achieve a short burn duration and a good combustion stability.This article aims at introducing an innovative combustion system fully optimized for ultra-lean operation and very high efficiency. Thereto, a new cylinder head concept has been realized with high peak firing pressure capability and with a low surface-to-volume ratio at high compression ratios. 1D and 3D simulations have been performed to optimize the compression ratio, charge motion and intake valve lift. Numerical calculations also supported the development of the ignition system. Stable ignition and fast flame propagation were achieved thanks to a centrally located active pre-chamber which allows to control the air/fuel ratio independently of the air/fuel ratio in the main combustion chamber.Experimental investigations have…
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On the Measurement and Simulation of Flow-Acoustic Sound Propagation in Turbochargers

FEV Europe GmbH-Ralf Stienen
Institute for Combustion Engines, RWTH Aachen University-Hendrik Ruppert, Felix Falke, Stefan Pischinger, Marco Günther
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engines are increasingly being equipped with turbochargers to increase performance and reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Being part of exhaust and intake systems, the turbocharger strongly influences the orifice noise emission. Although 1D-CFD simulations are commonly used for the development of intake and exhaust systems, validated acoustic turbocharger models are not yet state-of-the-art. Consequently, the aim of the paper is the investigation of the turbocharger’s influence on the orifice noise and the development of an accurate 1D-CFD model.The passive acoustic transmission loss was measured for a wide operating range of four turbochargers, including wastegate and VTG-system variations. Low frequency attenuation is dominated by impedance discontinuities, increasing considerably with mass flow and pressure ratio. High frequency transmission loss is generated by destructive interferences in the stator, which depend on the stator mass flow distribution and the turbocharger size.A new generic turbocharger model was developed to model both low frequency impedance discontinuities and high-frequency interferences by linking an idealized stator geometry with potential sources and turbocharger performance maps. In this way, high acoustic and thermodynamic…
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NVH Aspects of Electric Drive Unit Development and Vehicle Integration

FEV Europe GmbH-Christoph Steffens, Peter Janssen
FEV North America, Inc.-Thomas Wellmann, Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. This will also include a strong growth in the global demand for electric drive units (EDUs).The change from conventional vehicles to vehicles propelled by EDUs leads to a reduction in overall vehicle exterior and interior noise levels, especially during low-speed vehicle operation. Despite the overall noise levels being low, the NVH behavior of such vehicles can be objectionable due to the presence of tonal noise coming from electric machines and geartrain components as well as relatively high shares of road/wind noise. In order to ensure customer acceptance of electrically propelled vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges are understood and solved.This paper discusses various aspects of the EDU NVH development process. This will include a discussion of the NVH target cascading methodologies for EDUs, followed by a description of…
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Advanced Functional Pulse Testing of a Two-Stage VCR-System

FEV Europe GmbH-Markus Jesser, Kolja Orlowsky
RWTH Aachen University-Stefan Pischinger
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Two-stage variable compression ratio (VCR) systems for spark ignited engines offer a CO2 reduction potential of approx. 5%. Due to their modularity, connecting rod based VCR-systems can be integrated into existing engine assembly systems, where engines can be built in parallel with or without such a system, depending on performance and market requirements. In order to comply with the new RDE emission standards with high specific power engine variants, VCR systems enable high load engine operation without fuel enrichment. The interactions between the hydraulic-, mechanical - and oil supply systems of a VCR-system with variable connecting rod length are complex and require a well-developed and adapted layout of all subsystems. This demands the use of tailored measurement and simulation tools during the development and application phases. In this context, Advanced Functional Pulse Testing enables single-parameter analyses of VCR con rods. Examples are the determination of the frequency response under constant load cases or the chance for in-depth sensitivity studies on the impacts of various important operational boundary conditions. Another advantage of this testing method is…
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Objectified Drivability Evaluation and Classification of Passenger Vehicles in Automated Longitudinal Vehicle Drive Maneuvers with Engine Load Changes

FEV Europe GmbH-Stefan Tegelkamp, Christopher Schmidt, Henning Roehrich, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
RWTH Aachen University-Daniel Guse, Christian Heusch, Stefan Pischinger
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To achieve global market and brand specific drivability characteristics as unique selling proposition for the increasing number of passenger car derivatives, an objectified evaluation approach for the drivability capabilities of the various cars is required. Thereto, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of different engine concepts in various complex and interlinked powertrain topologies during engine load change maneuvers based on physical criteria. Such an objectification approach enables frontloading of drivability related engineering tasks by the execution of drivability development and calibration work within vehicle subcomponent-specific closed-loop real-time co-simulation environments in early phases of a vehicle development program. So far, drivability functionalities could be developed and calibrated only towards the end of a vehicle development program, when test vehicles with a sufficient level of product maturity became available. The resulting compaction and parallelization of the calibration work to meet the emissions, on-board diagnostics as well as the drivability requirements drastically reduces development costs and time.This article presents an objectified drivability evaluation and classification approach for passenger cars, which is based on physical criteria, developed at…
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Real-Time Modeling of a 48V P0 Mild Hybrid Vehicle with Electric Compressor for Model Predictive Control

FEV Europe GmbH-Dejan Jolovic
RWTH Aachen University-Philip Griefnow, Jakob Andert, Feihong Xia, Serge Klein, Phillip Stoffel, Michael Engels
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In order to reduce pollutant and CO2 emissions and fulfill future legislative requirements, powertrain electrification is one of the key technologies. In this context, especially 48V technologies offer an attractive cost to CO2 reduction ratio. 48V mild hybrid powertrains greatly benefit from additional electric intake air compression (E-Charging) and direct torque assist by an electric machine (E-Boosting). Both systems significantly improve the transient engine behavior while reducing the low end torque drawbacks of extreme downsizing and downspeeding.Since E-Charging and E-Boosting have different characteristics concerning transient torque response and energy efficiency, application of model predictive control (MPC) is a particularly suitable method to improve the operating strategy of these functions. MPC requires fast running real-time capable models that are challenging to develop for systems with pronounced nonlinearities. Hence, the focus of this study is on the process modeling of a 48V mild hybrid system with an electric compressor for applying model predictive control algorithms.Firstly, the problem is formulated by investigation of real world measurements of a 48V mild hybrid demonstrator vehicle with the target powertrain configuration.…
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Scalable Mean Value Modeling for Real-Time Engine Simulations with Improved Consistency and Adaptability

FEV Europe GmbH-Markus Ehrly, Joschka Schaub, Matthias Koetter, Ali Sercan Ayhan
RWTH Aachen University-Sung-Yong Lee, Jakob Andert, Stefan Pischinger
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This article discusses highly flexible and accurate physics-based mean value modeling (MVM) for internal combustion engines and its wide applicability towards virtual vehicle calibration. The requirement to fulfill the challenging Real Driving Emissions (RDE) standards has significantly increased the demand for precise engine models, especially models regarding pollutant emissions and fuel economy. This has led to a large increase in effort required for precise engine modeling and robust model calibration. Two best-practice engine modeling approaches will be introduced here to satisfy these requirements. These are the exclusive MVM approach, and a combination of MVM and a Design of Experiments (DOE) model for heterogeneous multi-domain engine systems. Both are evaluated using multiple engine operating conditions, transient cycles and different engines in order to highlight the practicability of MVM for a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) virtual calibration platform and the consistency of extrapolated simulation results in all conditions.The study demonstrates the application of both methods to establish adequate modeling approaches. These approaches enable the optimal trade-off between real-time computation, model complexity and effort required for model training. The proper…
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Gas Content in Lubricants of Modern Powertrain Systems - Development of a Continuous Volumetric Measurement Method

FEV Europe GmbH-Peter Theisen, Kolja Orlowsky
Institute for Combustion Engines, RWTH Aachen University-Benedikt Hammermueller, Daniel Hanciogullari
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Our expectations in lubrication systems applied in modern powertrains are continually rising. Beginning with the basic function of cooling and lubricating tribological contacts such as cylinder liner and piston, bearings, gears, chain drives and various valve train contacts, the oil in the lubrication system is now increasingly being used as a hydraulic fluid. Examples are (fully) variable valve trains, variable compression ratio systems or complicated transmission hydraulics. Driven by the general trend to minimize mechanical losses in order to increase the overall powertrain efficiency, the introduction of variable capacity oil pumps is commonly seen in latest engine designs. The potential to decrease oil pressure levels and volumetric oil flow in order to minimize mechanical losses on the one hand significantly complicates the reliable fulfillment of the aforementioned tasks of the lube systems on the other hand. In this context one of the core parameters for a reliable operation of modern lubrication systems in engines and transmissions is the gas content of the oil. Even though this circumstance is still partially underestimated during engine development, it…
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