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A Quasi-Dimensional Model of Pre-Chamber Spark-Ignition Engines

FEV Engine Technology-Knut Habermann
University of Naples-Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Daniela Tufano, Enrica Malfi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent pollutant and CO2 emission standards require the car manufacturers to investigate innovative solutions to further improve the fuel economy of their fleets. Among these techniques, an extremely lean combustion has a large potential to simultaneously reduce the NOx raw emissions and the fuel consumption of spark-ignition engines. Application of pre-chamber ignition systems is a promising solution to realize a favorable air/fuel mixture ignitability and an adequate combustion speed, even with very lean mixtures.In this work, the combustion characteristics of an active pre-chamber system are experimentally investigated using a single-cylinder research engine. Conventional gasoline fuel is injected into the main chamber, while the pre-chamber is fed with compressed natural gas. In a first stage, an experimental campaign was carried out at various speeds, spark timings and air-fuel ratios. Global engine operating parameters as well as cylinder pressure traces, inside main combustion chamber and pre-chamber, were recorded and analyzed.Based on the available experimental data, a phenomenological model of this unconventional combustion system with divided combustion chambers was developed and validated. The model was then implemented…
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Lean NOx Trap for Heavy-Duty On-Road Applications - A Feasible Alternative?

FEV Engine Technology-Marek Tatur, Erik Koehler, Martin Laermann, Dean Tomazic
AM General-Taylor Holland, David Robinson, Jeffrey Dowell
Published 2007-10-30 by SAE International in United States
The implementation and development efforts of lean NOx trap catalysts for heavy-duty applications decreased a number of years ago. Most heavy-duty engine manufacturers realized that the system complexity as well as the durability of such a system does not allow large volume production without significant risk. The current consensus of the heavy-duty community is that for 2010 the SCR system will be the prime path to meet the 0.2 g/bHPhr NOx emission standard, although this is subject to adequate infrastructure investment and progress.As a low volume manufacturer, in order to comply with the 2007 heavy-duty phase-in emission standards, General Engine Products (a subsidiary of AM General LLC) integrated a NOx adsorber system on the Optimizer 6500 engine. This engine features split combustion chamber design, rotary fuel injection pump and operates with EGR. The engine meets the 2004 heavy-duty emission standards, but does not allow a NOx reduction through engine internal measures that would allow certification to 2007 emission standards. This fact forced the introduction of an exhaust aftertreatment system with NOx conversion efficiencies in the…
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Development of an Emission Controls Concept for an IDI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Meeting 2007 Phase-In Emission Standards

FEV Engine Technology-Marek Tatur, Martin Laermann, Erik Koehler, Dean Tomazic
AM General-Taylor Holland, David Robinson, Jeffrey Dowell
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
In order to allow continued production of the AM General Optimizer 6500 during MY 2007 through 2010 this IDI engine (Indirect Injection - swirl chamber) requires sophisticated aftertreatment controls while maintaining its fuel economy and durability.The main purpose of the development program was to retain the relatively inexpensive and simple base engine with distributor pump and waste-gated turbocharger, while adding hardware and software components that allow achievement of the phase-in emission standards for 2007 through 2010. The aftertreatment system consists of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), NOx Adsorber Catalyst (or DeNOx Trap - DNT) and Diesel Particle Filter (DPF). In addition to the base hardware, an intake air throttle valve and an in-exhaust fuel injector were installed.The presented work will document the development process for a 2004 certified 6.5 l IDI heavy-duty diesel engine to comply with the 2007 heavy-duty emission standards. The system architecture evaluation proved to be one of the key development items that determined the packaging in the projected vehicle platform. Based on the temperature profile, it was found that the DOC-DPF-DNT configuration…
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Tier 2 Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

FEV Engine Technology-Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic
Battelle Memorial Institute-John Orban, Elizabeth Slone
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Due to its high efficiency and superior durability, the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the United States is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies-such as high-pressure, common-rail fuel systems; low-sulfur diesel fuel; oxides of nitrogen (NOx) adsorber catalysts or NACs; and diesel particle filters (DPFs)-allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) teamed with industry to engage in several testing projects under the Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels - Diesel Emission Controls (APBF-DEC) activity [1; 2; 5; 6; 7; 8]. Three…
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Tier 2 Intermediate Useful Life (50,000 Miles) and 4000 Mile Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

FEV Engine Technology-Marek Tatur, Heather Tyrer, Dean Tomazic
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew Thornton
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Due to its high efficiency and superior durability the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the U.S. is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as high-pressure common-rail fuel systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has engaged in several test projects under the Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels - Diesel Emission Controls (APBF-DEC) activity [1; 2; 5; 6]. The primary technology being addressed by these projects…
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Free Piston Engine Its Application and Optimization

FEV Engine Technology-Martin Goertz, Lixin Peng
Published 2000-03-06 by SAE International in United States
A free piston internal combustion engine coupled with a linear generator is proposed for hybrid vehicle application. The engine works on CI two-stroke cycle with direct fuel injection. Uniflow was chosen for an efficient scavenge process. The exhaust valve timing and lift are to be dynamically controlled by electromechanical driven poppet valves, developed by FEV.A numerical simulation model of the proposed engine has been generated in this paper. The piston dynamics, cylinder scavenge process, combustion process, and friction characteristics are coupled together for systematic analysis with the code. It is meant to be a tool for prediction and optimization of the engine design and control parameters, such as fuel injection timing, valve/port timing, and electric power output. The analysis results are discussed in this paper.
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NVH Optimization of the 1.2L DIATA Engine

FEV Engine Technology-Mark Ratliff
FEV Motorentechnik-Philipp Kley
Published 1999-05-17 by SAE International in United States
Within the PNGV program, very challenging targets in respect to vehicle fuel economy were set. These could not be met with today's gasoline engines and driveline concepts. One possible alternative approach is a hybrid vehicle with a small displacement engine that exceeds the fuel economy of conventional engines: the 1.2L DIATA (Direct-Injection-Aluminum-Throughbolt-Assembly) engine.Within the development of a CIDI engine the NVH aspects are of particular importance as the customer (i.e., driver) should not notice any negative difference to gasoline engines. Therefore, gasoline engine transparency in respect to NVH was one primary goal within the development process.This paper describes the implementation of NVH features into the engine design already in the initial concept design phases, and the consequent NVH optimization throughout the development phase. Using FE-based dynamic structure evaluations, the critical engine components (e.g. engine block, cylinder head, covers) were NVH optimized even before the first prototype was built. This ensured that only NVH refinement measures were required in a further prototype phase.NVH measurements of the prototype engines verified the excellent NVH characteristics of the DIATA…
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Direct Injection Gasoline Engines - Combustion and Design

FEV Engine Technology-Patrick Hupperich
FEV Motorentechnik GmbH & Co. KG-José Geiger, Michael Grigo, Oliver Lang, Peter Wolters
Published 1999-03-01 by SAE International in United States
The charge motion controlled combustion concept for SI engines with direct fuel injection exhibits an excellent fuel economy and emission potential in comparison with other DI combustion concepts. It realizes a stable combustion behavior all over the engine map. Because injection and ignition timing has little bearing on emission and ignition safety, the new concept can be easily applied under DI specific operational conditions. The combination of fired engine tests and optical investigations with CFD calculations enables an efficient process optimization under the boundary conditions as imposed by the respective design. The high EGR tolerance enables a large reduction of NOx emission, which is the expected basic requirement to meet future emission standards.In addition to favorable part load behavior, the new combustion concept also displays all of the characteristics for a good full load behavior. Its compact central combustion chamber design perfectly meets the requirements of homogeneous operation. Further, the use of roller finger followers enables a favorable cylinder head design, meeting all requirements of the combustion concept and ensuring minimal valve train friction.
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Comparison Studies on the Method of Characteristics and Finite Difference Methods for One-Dimensional Gas Flow through IC Engine Manifold

FEV Engine Technology-Jingping Liu, Lixin Peng
FEV Motorentechnik-Norbert Schorn, Christof Schernus
Published 1996-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A comparison study on the commonly used solution schemes of one-dimensional gas flow in IC engine manifolds, i.e. the method of characteristics and the finite difference schemes, was conducted in this paper. The study was based on computer simulations of the flow in a typical pipe-volume configuration under both steady and unsteady boundary conditions. The simulation results indicate that all the solution schemes offered fairly good accuracy in parallel pipes under steady flow conditions. However, under unsteady flow conditions, especially in tapered pipes commonly used in IC engine manifolds, all the existing solution schemes encountered difficulties. These included such aspects as the mass and energy conservation, non-physical overshoot, solution stability and physical process distortion. The solution schemes were compared based on the case calculations and the related problems are specified. Based on the two-step Lax-Wendroff difference scheme with flux correction technique, an improved calculation method was developed and the best compromise was achieved among the above aspects.
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