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Aircraft Engine Technology Review - The Pathways for an Efficient, Cleaner and Quieter Aviation Industry

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0175
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The aviation industry has been submitted to a set of environmental and commercial drivers that have led it to pursue engine technologies focused on the efficiency improvement, greenhouse (CO2) and pollutant (NOx and PM) emissions reductions, as well as noise abatement.The effort to comply with the ambitious long term environmental and efficiency targets set by the regulatory authorities has driven the aeronautic industry in a technological research effort. In the medium term, the aviation industry's strategy for commercial aviation is to focus on the advanced, but rather conventional propulsion systems (mainly turbofan engines). In this scenario, technological efforts have focused basically on enhancing thermal efficiency, through advanced core engines, as well as improving propulsive efficiency, through the use of low pressure systems (basically reduced pressure ratio and increased engine bypass ratio). To reach these objectives, a set of technological platforms has been proposed, with some already on an operational/commercial level, while others still in a prototype category. In this context, engine manufacturers have given a special focus on some technological approaches, like Ultra High Bypass…
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Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Standards Regulation Evolution Review - Current Outcomes and Future Perspectives

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0174
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Heavy duty vehicle (HDV) segment, as an important source of emissions that strongly impact air quality and human health - especially in urban centers - has been continuously challenged by the increasingly stringent emission limits. The adoption of emission standards for the heavy duty industry was initially launched by the United States, followed by the European Union and Japan, and, subsequently, by other countries, like Australia, Brazil, China and India, among others, generally with a time lag. This continuous “cleaning” effort has led to the current rigorous emission limits - materialized by the so called U.S. EPA 2010 and Euro VI and their foreign variants - which have provided huge emissions reductions (HC, CO, NOx, PM and smoke and, more recently, CO2). Nevertheless, due to air quality and global climate change concerns (basically derived from the air quality non compliance, associated with cities' pollution hotspots, as well as greenhouse gas emissions) there is still a regulatory demand for further emissions control improvement. In this scenario, the heavy duty vehicle industry has pursued not only increasingly…
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Aircraft electric propulsion technology review – A shift from turbofan to the ethrust era

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
Following the electrification trend observed in the automotive industry, the idea of an electric propulsion aircraft has also drawn attention and investments from a range of aviation industry stakeholders (including the world's largest aerospace companies) focused on both fuel burning reduction and environmental performance improvement (greenhouse gases (GHG), pollutants and noise emissions) potential of electric propulsion technology. Electric propulsion has the potential to provide more efficient, cleaner, quieter and more profitable aviation services, with potential benefits to both airlines and passengers. Furthermore, with its inherent quiet feature, it has also the potential to lead to a reassessment of the role of airports along the world cities, as well as revitalize regional short-haul flights and helps the launch of air service into underserved regions around the world. From a technical perspective , the aviation propulsion electrification strategy might involves the integration of electric powetrains into aircrafts into the i) all electric; ii) hybrid and iii) turboelectric approach. The former might rely solely on batteries as energy sources and requires engines up to 300 times more powerful…
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Bus’ system electrification review – A technological operational comparative assessment

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
Despite the recent groundbreaking improvements in diesel engine technology, with its inherent improved emission performance (Euro VI, US 2010 and their equivalences), it is well known that there is a limit on cleaning diesel buses. At the same time, cities and transit operators have been permanently challenged for seeking for traction technologies to comply with the emissions’ reduction agenda. In this context, electric bus traction technologies appear as a promising alternative for cleaning the bus’ fleets, with their intrinsic potential to reduce environmental impacts caused by public transport, such as greenhouse gas and local pollutant, as well as noise emissions. Moreover, the use of electricity also contributes to reduce the transport system’s dependency on fossil fuels and their inherent price volatility. From an operational perspective, it is required that alternative bus' traction technologies comply with diesel bus performance, in terms of costs, technological maturity, operational reliability, refueling times and infrastructure requirements. This, in some way, has challenged regulatory authorities and operators with the conflicting objectives of shifting to zero emission vehicles, while keeping the required…
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Biojet Fuel - A Tool for a Sustainable Aviation Industry - A Technical Assessment

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
The aviation industry currently holds a share of 2% global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although relatively small, estimated demand increase indicates an up to 350% emission rise in 2050, in the so called “no action scenario”. These emissions are injected into the upper atmosphere, with a potentialized stronger greenhouse effect than at ground level. In this context, ambitious emission reduction targets have been proposed into a global commitment, focused into a long term carbon emission reduction strategy, which would lead to net GHG emissions to peak in 2020, and then halves by 2050, based on 2005 levels, while accommodating increased air transport demand. To achieve this challenging goal, a multifaceted approach is required, ranging from technology oriented actions, like revolutionary aerodynamically driven design, new composite lightweight material and engine technology improvement, as well as improved ground and flight operational practices. However, such an ambitious target cannot be achieved solely by technology and operational improvements within the aviation industry alone. In this context, the so called Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF), most particularly biofuels (biojet fuels), have…
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