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Comparative Study on the Effects of Inlet Heating, Inlet Boosting, and Double-Injection Strategy on Partially Premixed Combustion

Eindhoven University Of Technology-Jinlin Han, Shuli Wang, Bart Somers
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a low temperature combustion (LTC) concept which can relieve soot-NOx trade-off without sacrificing efficiency. However, at low load operating range, PPC with low reactivity fuel generally undergoes long ignition delay, which gives rise to high pressure rise rate, fast heat release and even misfires. To solve these problems and maintain high efficiency simultaneously, inlet heating, inlet boosting and double-injection strategy are experimentally investigated in a heavy-duty engine. BH80 (80vol% n-butanol and 20vol% n-heptane) are blended and tested at 8 bar gIMEP in PPC mode. Inlet heating (from 40oC to 100oC), inlet boosting (from 1.4 bar to 2.5 bar) and a double-injection strategy (pilot/main injection) are attempted to reduce the maximum pressure rise rate (PRRmax). The results show that all three methods can achieve negligible soot emissions. Moreover, a correlation between global temperature at TDC and ignition delay is noticed. In other words, high global temperature after compression stroke makes BH80 easier to ignite. As a consequence, the ignition delay shortens and the maximum pressure rise rate decreases. Compared to inlet…
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Combustion Homogeneity and Emission Analysis during the Transition from CI to HCCI for FACE I Gasoline

Eindhoven University Of Technology-Bart Somers
King Abdullah University of Science & Tech-S. Vedharaj, R Vallinayagam, Yanzhao An, Bengt Johansson
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Low temperature combustion concepts are studied recently to simultaneously reduce NOX and soot emissions. Optical studies are performed to study gasoline PPC in CI engines to investigate in-cylinder combustion and stratification. It is imperative to perform emission measurements and interpret the results with combustion images. In this work, we attempt to investigate this during the transition from CI to HCCI mode for FACE I gasoline (RON = 70) and its surrogate, PRF70. The experiments are performed in a single cylinder optical engine that runs at a speed of 1200 rpm. Considering the safety of engine, testing was done at lower IMEP (3 bar) and combustion is visualized using a high-speed camera through a window in the bottom of the bowl.From the engine experiments, it is clear that intake air temperature requirement is different at various combustion modes to maintain the same combustion phasing. While a fixed intake air temperature is required at HCCI condition, it varies at PPC and CI conditions between FACE I gasoline and PRF70. Three zones are identified 1) SOI = -180…
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Effects of Injection Timing on Fluid Flow Characteristics of Partially Premixed Combustion Based on High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry

SAE International Journal of Engines

Eindhoven University Of Technology-Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Bart Somers, Nico Dam
Dantec Dynamics A/S-Hua Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0744
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a promising combustion concept ,based on judicious tuning of the charge stratification, to meet the increasing demands of emission legislation and to improve fuel efficiency. Longer ignition delays of PPC in comparison with conventional diesel combustion provide better fuel/air mixture which decreases soot and NOx emissions. Moreover, a proper injection timing and strategy for PPC can improve the combustion stability as a result of a higher level of fuel stratification in comparison with the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) concept. Injection timing is the major parameter with which to affect the level of fuel and combustion stratification and to control the combustion phasing and the heat release behavior. The scope of the present study is to investigate the fluid flow characteristics of PPC at different injection timings. To this end, high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is implemented in a light-duty optical engine to measure fluid flow characteristics, including the flow fields, mean velocity and cycle-resolved turbulence, inside the piston bowl as well as the squish region with a temporal resolution…
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Transient Flame Development in a Constant-Volume Vessel Using a Split-Scheme Injection Strategy

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Eindhoven University Of Technology-Noud Maes, P.C. Bakker, Nico Dam, Bart Somers
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0815
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Multiple-injection strategies are characterized by a complex and transient interplay between high- and low-temperature reactions. Tracking low-temperature reaction products such as formaldehyde (CH2O) is particularly important to understand ignition phenomena and the so-called “combustion recession” that is observed in experiments. Experimentally, it is often difficult to discriminate between formaldehyde and other species such as poly-aromatic hydrocarbons, which is why a selective excitation approach is used in this work. Simultaneous high-speed imaging of the chemically-excited hydroxyl radical (OH*) is used to improve indication of flame location and second stage ignition. During experiments in a constant-volume vessel, two 0.5-ms injections of n-dodecane, separated by 0.5-ms dwell time, are injected into a 900-K ambient. The global flame development is characterized based on high-speed diagnostics, followed by an investigation into the spatial distribution of formaldehyde at four different times after start-of-injection (aSOI). Results show significant influence of the first injection on characteristics of the second. Ignition delay and lift-off location of the second injection are prominently reduced, while flame penetration is greatly enhanced by the wake of the first…
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Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

Eindhoven University Of Technology-Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Bart Somers
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology-R. Vallinayagam, S. Vedharaj, Yanzhao An, Alaaeldin Dawood, Bengt Johansson
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON = 46). The motored pressure at TDC is maintained at 35 bar and fuelMEP is kept constant at 5.1 bar to account for the difference in fuel properties between naphtha and diesel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is injected at a pressure of 800 bar. Photron FASTCAM SA4 that captures in-cylinder combustion at the rate of 10000 frames per second is employed. The captured high speed video is processed to study the combustion homogeneity based on an algorithm reported in previous studies.Starting from late fuel injection timings, combustion stratification is investigated by advancing the fuel injection timings. For late start of injection (SOI), a direct link between SOI and combustion phasing is noticed. At early SOI, combustion phasing depends on both intake air temperature and SOI. In order to match the combustion phasing (CA50) of diesel,…
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Performance and Emissions of Lignin and Cellulose Based Oxygenated Fuels in a Compression-Ignition Engine

Eindhoven University Of Technology-Lei Zhou, Michael Boot
VKA, RWTH Aachen-Benedikt Heuser, Florian Kremer, Stefan Pischinger
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lignocellulosic biomass consists of (hemi-) cellulose and lignin. Accordingly, an integrated biorefinery will seek to valorize both streams into higher value fuels and chemicals. To this end, this study evaluated the overall combustion performance of both cellulose- and lignin derivatives, namely the high cetane number (CN) di-n-butyl ether (DnBE) and low CN anisole, respectively. Said compounds were blended both separately and together with EN590 diesel. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder compression ignition engine, which has been optimized for improved combustion characteristics with respect to low emission levels and at the same time high fuel efficiency. The selected operating conditions have been adopted from previous “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass (TMFB)” work. Although particulate matter emissions benefitted from the combination of anisole and DnBE, overall performance, including also indicated efficiency, load ignitability, as well as unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions, was best for the diesel blend with the lowest anisole concentration of 10% and a CN of 45. Furthermore, the results suggested that CN has more impact than fuel oxygen content, with lower CN…
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The Effect of Molecular Structure on Soot Emission of a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine

Eindhoven University Of Technology-Lei Zhou, M.D. Boot, Philip de Goey
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Numerous previous studies have reported that the reduction of emissions by adapting oxygenated bio-fuels chiefly depend on the overall oxygen percentage of the blended oxygenates. However, the effect of molecular structures of the fuels has sometimes only been attributed to differences in auto-ignition quality (i.e. cetane number). In this paper, fuels with two kinds of molecular structures, namely linear and cyclic, have been studied. It reports on emissions tests on a modified in-line 6-cylinder DAF HD Diesel engine with several selected oxygenates mixed with diesel. Fuels in question here are from the non-oxygenates group: n-hexane and cyclohexane, and the oxygenate group: 1-hexanol and cyclohexanol. In order to isolate the effect of molecular structure, the blend compositions are chosen such that the overall oxygen fraction of all blends is the same. In the conclusions, some suggestions for adoption of appropriate bio-fuels as alternatives of diesel for lower emissions have been proposed by being observed differences in soot emission propensities.
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Gasoline - Ignition Improver - Oxygenate Blends as Fuels for Advanced Compression Ignition Combustion

Eindhoven University Of Technology-Lei Zhou, M.D. Boot, L.P.H. de Goey
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Mixing is inhibited both by the relatively low volatility of conventional diesel fuel and the short premixing time due to high fuel reactivity (i.e. cetane number (CN)). Consequently, in this research two promising oxygenates which can be produced from 2nd generation biomass -ethanol from cellulose and anisole from lignin - will be blended to gasoline, further doped with ignition improver. This will result in a diesel-like CN, but with a higher gasoline-like volatility. There is, however, also a more practical motivation for this study. In Europe, the dieselization trend is resulted in a growing excess of gasoline, which is currently largely exported to the USA at additional transport costs. Boosting the cetane number of gasoline into the diesel range with ignition improvers is a promising route to more efficiently consume European refinery products within Europe. In such a scenario and given current biofuel mandates, it is likely that biofuels will be added to the improved CN gasoline. Experiments are conducted on a modified in-line 6-cylinder DAF heavy-duty diesel engine. The goal of this paper is…
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Experimental Investigation of In-Cylinder Wall Wetting in GDI Engines Using a Shadowgraphy Method

Eindhoven University Of Technology-Bennie Luijten, Bart Somers
FEV GmbH-Philipp Adomeit, Andre Brunn
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses an experimental approach to compare the amount of gasoline on the liner for different engine setups. This is done in a non-fired motored gasoline direct injection (GDI) test engine with transparent liner walls. The main goal is a planar observation and detection of the liner wetting using a shadowgraphy method. The area of impinged fuel on the liner is visualized. After one injection cycle the decay of the area due to evaporation can be described over the next running cycles without injection. The evaporation rate is a function of the wetted area. The amount of impinged fuel is estimated with a combination of the measured wetted area and theory of evaporation behavior.In this study three different injectors are tested under full load conditions. The injection strategies are varied. Big differences are observed between the injectors and injection strategies. Furthermore the advantages and drawbacks of the measurement method are discussed.
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High-Speed Characterization of ECN Spray A Using Various Diagnostic Techniques

SAE International Journal of Engines

Eindhoven University Of Technology-Maarten Meijer, L.M.T. Somers
Ghent University-Jonas Galle, Sebastian Verhelst
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1616
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Diesel spray experimentation at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions is intended to provide a more fundamental understanding of diesel combustion than can be achieved in engine experiments. This level of understanding is needed to develop the high-fidelity multi-scale CFD models that will be used to optimize future engine designs.Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but because of the uniqueness of each facility, there are uncertainties about their operation. The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is a worldwide group of institutions using combustion vessels, whose aim is to advance the state of spray and combustion knowledge at engine-relevant conditions. A key activity is the use of spray chamber facilities operated at specific target conditions in order to leverage research capabilities and advanced diagnostics of all ECN participants. The first target condition, called “Spray A”, has been defined with detailed ambient and injector conditions.For this paper, we describe results from the constant-volume pre-burn vessel at Eindhoven University of Technology. The executed measurements include a wide range of diagnostics…
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