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Calibration Process for SCR Only TIER4i Engine for Construction Equipment

EMITEC GmbH-Peter Bauer, Karsten Pietschmann
IAV GmbH-Thaddaeus Delebinski, Joern Seebode, Lars Henning
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The current legislation for industrial applications and construction equipment including earthmoving machines and crane engines allows different strategies to fulfill the corresponding exhaust emission limits. Liebherr Machines Bulle SA developed their engines to accomplish these limits using SCRonly technology. IAV supported this development, carrying out engine as well as SCR aftertreatment system and vehicle calibration work including the OBD and NOx Control System (NCS) calibration, as well as executing the homologation procedures at the IAV development center. The engines are used in various Liebherr applications certified for EU Stage IIIb, EPA TIER 4i, China GB4 and IMO MARPOL Tier II according to the regulations “97/68/EC”, “40 CFR Part 1039”, “GB17691-2005” and “40 CFR Parts 9, 85, et al.” using the same SCR hardware for all engine power variants of the corresponding I6 and V8 engine families.This paper covers aspects of the different emission regulations as well as the different engine applications with their individual load collectives and restrictions. Special emphasis is placed on the SCR hardware and its calibration. For the different applications of this…
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Advanced Exhaust Gas Thermal Management for Lowest Tailpipe Emissions - Combining Low Emission Engine and Electrically Heated Catalyst

EMITEC GmbH-Axel Schatz, Roman Konieczny
EMITEC Inc.-Ulrich Pfahl
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Further advancements in engine development lead to increased fuel efficiency and reduced CO₂ emission. Such low emission engine concepts require most advanced exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for lowest possible tailpipe emissions. On the other hand, the exhaust gas purification by catalytic measures experiences more and more challenges due to constantly reduced exhaust gas temperatures by more efficient engines. These challenges can be overcome by traditional catalyst heating strategies, which are known to increase fuel consumption and emissions. Alternatively, electrically heated catalysts ("EHC") can be utilized to provide a very efficient method to increase gas temperatures directly in the exhaust catalyst. This way the energy input can be tailored according to the component need and the energy loss in the system can be minimized. This advanced path of thermal management looks especially attractive considering increasing electrification of vehicles and utilizing more recuperative energy recovery practices in new vehicles. Depending on the application, electrically heated catalysts can give overall energy and emission benefits. The work in this paper describes the technology needed for direct exhaust gas temperature…
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Vehicle Mass Lightening by Design of Light-weight Structured Substrates for Catalytic Converters

EMITEC GmbH-Manuel Presti, Lorenzo Pace , Wilfried Mueller, Olaf Witte-Merl
Published 2011-06-09 by SAE International in United States
The clear objective of future powertrain development is strongly characterized by lowest emission impact and minimum overall system cost penalty to the customer. In the past decades emission impact has been primarily related to both optimization of combustion process and exhaust after-treatment system efficiency. Nowadays, weight reduction is one of the main objectives for vehicular applications, considering the related improvements both in fuel consumption (i.e. CO2 production) and engine-out emissions. The state of the art of catalytic converter systems for automotive ZEV-oriented applications has yet to be introduces into mass production.This paper investigates the successful application o metallic turbulent structures for catalytic converters along with innovative packaging considerations, such as structured outer mantle, which lead to significant weight reductions, exhaust backpressure minimization and improved overall emission conversion efficiency. Virtual engineering, such as FEA and CFD simulation, has been used to optimize the substrate (matrix and mantle) and successively a comprehensive test procedure has been carried out to validate the innovative substrate architecture.
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Changing the Substrate Technology to meet Future Emission Limits

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

EMITEC GmbH-Lorenzo Pace, Manuel Presti
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1550
Published 2010-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Future stringent emission legislation will require high efficient catalytical systems. Along with engine out emission reduction and advanced wash coat solution the substrate technology will play a key role in order to keep system costs as low as possible.The development of metallic substrates over the past few years has shown that turbulent-like substrates increase specific catalytic efficiency. This has made it possible to enhance overall performance for a specific catalytic volume or reduce the volume while keeping catalytic efficiency constant.This paper focuses on the emission efficiency of standard, TS (Transversal Structure) and LS (Longitudinal Structure) metallic substrates. In a first measurement program, standard TS and LS substrates have been compared using a 150cc 4 Stroke engine in dynamic (ECE R40) conditions. In a second test standard and LS substrate have been tested.Both TS and LS technologies show advantage compared to standard technology but have different application fields: TS is a cost effective solution for next emission limits while LS is a possible solution for future stringent emission limits.
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Influence of Pre Turbo Catalyst Design on Diesel Engine Performance, Emissions and Fuel Economy

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

EMITEC GmbH-Klaus Mueller-Haas, Roman Konieczny
BorgWarner Inc.-Volker Joergl, Philip Keller, Olaf Weber
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-0071
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper gives a thorough review of the HC/CO emissions challenge and discusses the effects of different diesel oxidation catalyst designs in a pre turbine and post turbine position on steady state and transient turbo charger performance as well as on HC and CO tailpipe emissions, fuel economy and performance of modern Diesel engines. Results from engine dynamometer testing are presented. Both classical diffusive and advanced premixed Diesel combustion modes are investigated to understand the various effects of possible future engine calibration strategies.
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Exhaust Emission Reduction in Small Capacity Two- and Four-Stroke Engine Technologies

EMITEC GmbH-Alfred Reck, Friedrich - Wilhelm Kaiser
Graz University of Technology-Matjaž Korman, Mario Hirz, Roland Kirchberger, Franz Winkler
Published 2006-11-13 by SAE International in United States
State of the art technologies of 2 and 4 stroke engines have to fulfill severe future exhaust emission regulations, with special focus on the aspects of rising performance and low cost manufacturing, leading to an important challenge for the future. In special fields of applications (e.g. mopeds, hand held or off-road equipment) mainly engines with simple mixture preparation systems, partially without exhaust gas after treatment are used. The comparison of 2 and 4 stroke concepts equipped with different exhaust gas after treatment systems provides a decision support for applications in a broad field of small capacity engine classes.
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Turbulent Flow Metal Substrates: A Way to Address Cold Start CO Emissions and to Optimize Catalyst Loading

EMITEC GmbH-Manuel Presti, Lorenzo Pace
Umicore AG & Co KG-Gerardo Carelli, Paul Spurk
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Modern Diesel Engines equipped with Common-Rail Direct Injection and EGR are characterized by an increasingly high combustion efficiency. Consequently the exhaust gas temperature, especially during a cold start, is significantly reduced compared to typical values measured in previous engine generations. This leads to a potential problem with CO emission limit compliance. The present paper deals with an experimental investigation of turbulent-flow metal substrates, carried out on a vehicle roller bench using a production 1.3 Liter diesel engine equipped passenger car. The tested metal supported catalysts proved to yield extremely high conversion rates both during cold start and in warm operation phase. The improved mass transfer efficiency of the advanced metal substrates is related on one hand to the optimized coating technology and, on the other hand, to the enhanced flow performance in the single converter channels which is caused by structured metal foils. Additionally different cost saving scenarios have been analyzed by means of both catalyst volume reduction and decreased PGM loading.
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Metal Supported Particulate Matter-Cat, A Low Impact and Cost Effective Solution for a 1.3 Euro IV Diesel Engine

EMITEC GmbH-Lorenzo Pace, Roman Konieczny, Manuel Presti
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Modern Diesel Engines equipped with Common-Rail Direct Injection, EGR and optimized combustion technology have been proven to reduce dramatically engine raw emissions both in terms of Nox and Particulate Matter.As a matter of fact the recently introduced FIAT 1.3 JTD 4 Cylinder Engine achieves Euro 4 limits with aid of conventional 2-way oxidation catalyst. Nevertheless some special applications, such as platforms with relatively higher gross vehicle weight possibly yield to PM-related issues.The present paper deals with the development program carried out to design a cost effective aftertreatment solution in order to address particulate matter tailpipe emissions. The major constraint of this development program was the extremely challenging packaging conditions and the absolute demand to avoid any major impact on the system design.The flow-through metal supported PM Filter Catalyst has been extensively tested on the specific vehicle application with aid of roller bench setup. Partial engine load soot loading, continuous regeneration and long term soot trapping efficiency have been addressed during the present work.
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Backpressure Optimized Metal Supported Close Coupled PE Catalyst - First Application on a Maserati Powertrain

EMITEC GmbH-Lorenzo Pace, Manuel Presti
ArvinMeritor-Mathias Holzinger
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Future stringent emission limits both in the European Community and USA require continuously increased conversion efficiency of exhaust after-treatment systems.Besides the obvious targets of fastest light-off performance, overall conversion efficiency and durability, catalytic converters for maximum output engines require highly optimized flow properties as well, in order to create minimum exhaust backpressure for low fuel consumption.This work deals with the design, development and serial introduction of a close coupled main catalyst system using the innovative technology of Perforated Foils (PE).By means of PE-technology, channel-to-channel gas mixing within the metal substrate could be achieved leading to dramatically reduced backpressure values compared with the conventional design.Due to the highly improved flow properties of the advanced metal substrate, a compact converter could be designed taking into account the demanding packaging constraints in a modern V8 engine compartment.The present paper consists of numerical simulations, flow bench and engine test bench measurements carried out to assess emission performance, backpressure advantage and engine power output increase of a close-coupled single brick system compliant with LEV-II and EU4 emission limits.
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Development of an Emission Aftertreatment System for Hand Held Powertools

EMITEC GmbH-F.-W. Kaiser, T. Nagel
ANDREAS STIHL AG&Co.KG-H. Lochmann, H. Schlessmann, J. Schlossarczyk, S. Richter
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper gives an overview of the development work for an aftertreatment system, used in hand held powertools to fulfil the corporate average US Limits.The paper will start with a description of the annual reductions in US Limits with differences in CARB and EPA legislation and the consequences of the legislation in Europe from 2007 onwards.There then follows a chapter describing space restrictions in the given muffler leading to a maximum size for the substrate. Tests results are shown, giving an idea of additional measures taken to avoid dangerous temperatures on the muffler surface and of the emitted exhaust gas. The exothermic temperature increase created under service conditions imposes an additional thermal load from the catalyst back towards the engine itself. Therefore, some modifications regarding gas flow and positioning of the catalyst had to be made to find an adequate solution for series production.Durability tests were conducted, to ensure the proper durability behavior both in emissions and mechanical performance. The temperatures inside the catalyst are also discussed; these are extremely high under the harsh conditions…
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