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Material Systems for Solar Sails

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.-Yakov Belopolsky
Published 1994-03-01 by SAE International in United States
The use of the solar sail cargo spacecraft in a manned mission to Mars can provide inexpensive means to deliver large payloads in different planetary regions. This paper deals with requirements for material systems for solar sails. Systems based on polyimide and polyester dielectrics were analyzed. Several metallization approaches were experimentally verified. An optimal ratio of the overall metal thickness to the intensity of UV radiation was calculated. This paper provides solar-sail-as-payload calculations for the existing spacecraft design. Using computer finite element analyses, electronic microscopy and experimental procedures, the mechanical stresses and forces were investigated.
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Plastic Media Evaluation-An Optimization Study

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.-Robert O'Sullivan
Battelle Memorial Institute-C. H. Cundiff, O. L. Deel
Published 1990-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Optimization parameters designed to minimize residual stress and maximize coatings removal rates are presented. Stress saturation curves are presented and compared for the optimized blasting parameters using different plastic abrasive materials.
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Plastic Media Evaluation-A Comparative Study of Chemical and Physical Properties of Several Plastic Media

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.-Robert O'Sullivan
Battelle Memorial Institute-C. H. Cundiff, O. L. Deel
Published 1990-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Chemical and physical properties of various plastics used for plastic abrasive applications are presented. All testing is done in compliance with MIL-P-85891 (AS), “Plastic Media for Removal of Organic Coatings”. Density and heavy density particle contamination are particularly important tests relative to aerospace applications.
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Plastic Media Evaluation- A Comparative Study of Performance Capabilities of Several Plastic Media

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.-Robert O'Sullivan
Battelle Memorial Institute-C. H. Cundiff, O. L. Deel
Published 1990-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Performance of various plastic abrasive materials is compared in a typical aerospace coatings removal application. Media aggressiveness towards substrates, stripping capabilities, effects of plastic breakdown, and plastic consumption are compared. Lower density plastics are shown to be more substrate protective than higher denisty plastics. Stripping rates are shown to be dependent both on plastic hardness and breakdown resistance of the plastic.
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A Survey of Performance Elastomers-Meeting Automotive Requirements of the '80s

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.-S. R. Foster, D. R. Capriotti
Published 1984-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Continuing regulatory and consumer pressures and energy considerations have forced significant changes in the automotive industry. The resulting vehicle design objectives, which include downsizing, the move to front wheel drive, trends in optional equipment and fast-paced competitive design all have affected the amounts and types of elastomers used on today's vehicle. This paper will discuss some of the changes in elastomer usage, review some of the technical reasons for these changes and suggest trends for automotive elastomers in the next several years.
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The Use of “Kapton” Polyimide Film in Aerospace Applications

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.-D. H. Berkebile, D. L. Stevenson
Published 1981-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Over the past 15 years, “Kapton” polyimide film has been adopted as the principal wire and cable insulation in over 70 military and commercial aircraft, missile and space vehicle applications. This wide acceptance is due to the unique combination of properties found in “Kapton”: low weight, low smoke toxicity, high dielectric strength, toughness, chemical resistance and the ability to withstand extremes of temperature.This paper describes the key steps in the manufacture of wire and cable insulated with “Kapton”. It reviews the latest in shop handling techniques including automated stripping and high speed marking. Additional aerospace applications will be discussed in avionics and insulation blankets.
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Math Modeling of an Exhaust Reactor

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.-M. H. Blenk, R. G. E. Franks
Published 1971-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Thermal and chemical processes occurring in exhaust manifold thermal reactors have been closely simulated with a computer model. The model has been developed to predict the performance of thermal reactors operating on multicylinder engines in vehicle service. Output predictions include both transient and steady-state response including reactor warmup at steady-state engine operation. Gas and metal temperatures, heat fluxes, and concentrations of selected exhaust components can be followed as a function of time at various locations within the reactor.Studies carried out using the model indicate that, for the chosen set of operating assumptions, combustion of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide at steady-state operating conditions is limited by imperfect mixing of exhaust gases with auxiliary air. Most reaction was found to occur in the exhaust ports and inner chamber of the reactor with little additional combustion downstream of these sections.Optimum secondary air injection rates for minimum carbon monoxide survival were predicted for various operating conditions. Transient reactor response to a misfire condition was also followed through use of a model.This paper describes the features of the mathematical model,…
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1971 Cars and the “New” Gasolines

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.-W. E. Morris, J. D. Rogers, R. W. Poskitt
Published 1971-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The recent introduction of lower compression ratio engines and the concurrent marketing of unleaded and low-lead content gasolines of generally lower octane number made it appropriate to investigate the interrelationships of engine performance and gasoline octane quality using the “new” engines and fuels.Programs were carried out to compare fuel economy and acceleration performance of eight matched pairs of 1970 and 1971 automobiles. In addition, octane requirements were obtained on 43 1971 cars with 3,000-12,000 deposit miles. A total of 146 unleaded, low-lead, and leaded regular gasolines obtained at service stations throughout the country were analyzed, and the road octane performance of these gasolines was determined using 1970 and 1971 cars designed for regular gasoline. In addition, a set of 36 specially prepared gasoline blends was tested in the same cars to obtain further insight into the effects of research octane number, motor octane number, and lead content on road octane quality in late-model automobiles.
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Automotive Particulate Emissions and Their Control

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.-K. Habibi
Published 1971-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Over the past 15 years, a large amount of effort has been devoted to the development of sampling and analytical techniques to measure the gaseous components of vehicle exhaust. Development of these techniques has been a long, time-consuming process, requiring definition of all factors that can affect accuracy, reproducibility, and the meaningfulness of the test results. In spite of all this activity, further changes and improvements in the test procedures are still being implemented. In contrast, the amount of activity spent in developing methods for determining the quantity and composition of particulate matter in vehicle exhaust has been quite small. There is, at present, no clear definition of what is considered particulate matter in vehicle exhaust. Further, there is no procedure for determining the total particulate emission rate from cars, or a defined test cycle for rating of cars. However, particulate emission control standards are being considered for 1975. The main reason for this lack of definition and procedure is the fact that sampling and measurement of exhaust particulate matter is a very complex problem,…
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Seat Belt Users: An Analysis of Who They Are and Why

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.-Rodney H. Dobson
Published 1970-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Surveys conducted by du Pont reveal the motivational factors involved in seat belt usage. Results of questions put to du Pont employees and others reveal that pressure generated within small groups, for example, fellow workers, is needed to make seat belt usage psychologically acceptable. Therefore, promotional and education campaigns directed toward the individual as a member of a large group (his community) are not effective. Overall seat usage levels will be increased only by the piecemeal method of reaching one small group and then another, until all drivers are touched.
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