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The Auto-Generation of Calibration Guides from MATLAB® Simulink®

Delphi Corporation-William Allen
Delphi Technologies Inc.-Bharath Sundar
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
With the inception of model-based design and automatic code generation, many organizations are developing controls and diagnostics algorithms in model-based development tools to meet customer and regulatory requirements. Advances in model-based design have made it easier to generate C code from models and help software engineers streamline their workflow. Typically, after the software has been developed, the models are handed over to a calibration team responsible for calibrating the features to meet specified customer and regulatory requirements. However, once the models are handed over to the calibration team, the calibration engineers are unaware of how to calibrate the features because documentation is not available. Typically, model documentation trails behind the software process because it is created manually, most of this time is spent on formatting. As a result, lack of model documentation or up-to date documentation causes a lot of pain for OEM’s and Tier 1 suppliers. This paper will explore the auto-generation of documentation from Simulink® models. The format and contents of the auto-generated document will be reviewed in this paper. This paper will…
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An Experimental Study on Engine Dynamics Model Based In-Cylinder Pressure Estimation

Delphi Corporation-Feilong Liu
University of Cambridge-Gehan A. J. Amaratunga, Nick Collings
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The information provided by the in-cylinder pressure signal is of great importance for modern engine management systems. The obtained information is implemented to improve the control and diagnostics of the combustion process in order to meet the stringent emission regulations and to improve vehicle reliability and drivability. The work presented in this paper covers the experimental study and proposes a comprehensive and practical solution for the estimation of the in-cylinder pressure from the crankshaft speed fluctuation. Also, the paper emphasizes the feasibility and practicality aspects of the estimation techniques, for the real-time online application. In this study an engine dynamics model based estimation method is proposed. A discrete-time transformed form of a rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model is constructed based on the kinetic energy theorem, as the basis expression for total torque estimation. The major difficulties, including load torque estimation and separation of pressure profile from adjacent-firing cylinders, are addressed in this work and solutions to each problem are given respectively. The experimental results conducted on a multi-cylinder diesel engine have shown that the proposed method…
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Closed Loop Pressure Control System Requirements and Implementation

Delphi Corporation-Quan Zheng, Bruce Church, Ken Defore
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Electro-hydraulic actuation has been used widely in automatic transmission designs. With greater demand for premium shift quality of automatic transmissions, higher pressure control accuracy of the transmission electro-hydraulic control system has become one of the main factors for meeting this growing demand. This demand has been the driving force for the development of closed loop pressure controls technology.This paper presents the further research done based upon a previously developed closed loop system. The focus for this research is on the system requirements, such as solenoid driver selection and system latency handling. Both spin-stand and test vehicle setups are discussed in detail. Test results for various configurations are given.
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Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) - Diesel-like Efficiency with Low CO2 Emissions

SAE International Journal of Engines

Delphi Corporation-Mark Sellnau, James Sinnamon, Kevin Hoyer, Harry Husted
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1386
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
A single-cylinder engine was used to study the potential of a high-efficiency combustion concept called gasoline direct-injection compression-ignition (GDCI). Low temperature combustion was achieved using multiple injections, intake boost, and moderate EGR to reduce engine-out NOx and PM emissions engine for stringent emissions standards. This combustion strategy benefits from the relatively long ignition delay and high volatility of regular unleaded gasoline fuel.Tests were conducted at 6 bar IMEP - 1500 rpm using various injection strategies with low-to-moderate injection pressure. Results showed that triple injection GDCI achieved about 8 percent greater indicated thermal efficiency and about 14 percent lower specific CO2 emissions relative to diesel baseline tests on the same engine. Heat release rates and combustion noise could be controlled with a multiple-late injection strategy for controlled fuel-air stratification. Estimated heat losses were significantly reduced. GDCI has good potential for full-time operation over the US Federal drive cycle.
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Analysis of Pre-Crash Data Transferred over the Serial Data Bus and Utilized by the SDM-DS Module

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Delphi Corporation-Douglas Nunan
Exponent Inc.-Cleve Bare
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0809
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The primary function of an airbag control module is to detect crashes, discriminate and predict if a deployment is necessary, then deploy the restraint systems including airbags and where applicable, pretensioners. At General Motors (GM), the internal term for airbag control module is Sensing and Diagnostic Module (SDM). In the 1994 model year, GM introduced its SDM on some of its North American airbag-equipped vehicles. A secondary function of that SDM and all subsequent SDMs is to record crash related data. This data can include data regarding impact severity from internal accelerometers and pre-crash vehicle data from various chassis and powertrain modules. Previous researchers have addressed the accuracy of both the velocity change data, recorded by the SDM, and the pre-crash data, but the assessment of the timing of the pre-crash data has been limited to a single family of modules (Delphi SDM-G). This paper addresses the operation and performance of another family of General Motors SDMs; the SDM-DS and its utilization of the Class 2 intra module serial communication bus.A series of vehicle test…
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Effects of Fuel Type on Dual SCR Aftertreatment for Lean NOx Reduction

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Delphi Corporation-Galen B. Fisher, Craig L. DiMaggio, Dan Trytko, Ken M. Rahmoeller, Mark Sellnau
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2818
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
Global demand for alternative fuels to combat rising energy costs has sparked a renewed interest in catalysts that can effectively remediate NOx emissions resulting from combustion of a range of HC based fuels. Because many of these new engine technologies rely on lean operating environments to produce efficient power, the resulting emissions are also present in a lean atmosphere. While HCs are easily controlled in such environments, achieving high NOx conversion to N2 has continued to elude fully satisfactory solution. Until recently, most approaches have relied on catalysts with precious metals to either store NOx and subsequently release it as N2 under rich conditions, or use NH3 SCR catalysts with urea injection to reduce NOx under lean conditions. However, new improvements in Ag based technologies also look very promising for NOx reduction in lean environments. Early in 2009 we proposed “Dual SCR,” a further enhancement to Ag HC-SCR, where an NH3-SCR catalyst follows the HC-SCR catalyst. The second catalyst improves overall efficiency using ammonia formed on the Ag HC-SCR catalyst to further reduce NOx. This…
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A Closed-Loop Drive-train Model for HIL Test Bench

Delphi Corporation-Asif Habeebullah, Quan Zheng, Woowon Chung
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software, with a focus on a closed-loop vehicle drive-train model incorporating a detailed automatic transmission plant dynamics model developed for certain applications. Specifically, this paper presents the closed-loop integration of a 6-speed automatic transmission model developed for our HIL transmission controller and algorithm test bench (Opal-RT TestDrive based). The model validation, integration and its application in an HIL test environment are described in details.
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An Analytical and Experimental Study of a High Pressure Single Piston Pump for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) Engine Applications

Delphi Corporation-Timothy D. Spegar, Shi-Ing Chang, Sudhakar Das
Stanadyne Corporation-Eugene Norkin, Robert Lucas
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, gasoline direct injection (GDi) engines have been popular due to their inherent potential for reduction of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption to meet stringent EPA standards. These engines require high-pressure fuel injection in order to improve the atomization process and accelerate mixture preparation. The high-pressure fuel pump is an essential component in the GDi system. Therefore, understanding the flow characteristics of this device and its associated behavior is critical for improving the performance of this category of engines.In this paper, the fluid flow characteristics in a high-pressure single-piston pump for use in GDi engines are analyzed using 1-D LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim system and 3-D Ansys Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The flow rate of the fuel pump under various cam speeds has been examined along with characteristics of the pump's control valve. A comparison of model predictions with experimentally obtained data shows reasonably good agreement.Similar analytical techniques may be used in modeling other pump details and may also be extended to adjacent components for simulation of the entire fuel system. Further…
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Impact of Biodiesel Emission Products from a Multi-Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine on Particulate Filter Performance

Delphi Corporation-Ming-Cheng Wu, Craig DiMaggio
Wayne State University-Amy Peterson, Po-I Lee, Ming-Chia Lai
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
As diesel emission regulations continue to increase, the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems containing, for example the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) will become necessary in order to meet these stringent emission requirements. The addition of a DOC and DPF in conjunction with utilizing biodiesel fuels requires extensive research to study the implications that biodiesel blends have on emissions as well as to examine the effect on aftertreatment devices.The proceeding work discusses results from a 2006 VM Motori four-cylinder 2.8L direct injection diesel engine coupled with a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed diesel particulate filter. Tests were done using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel blended with 20% choice white grease biodiesel fuel to evaluate the effects of biodiesel emission products on the performance and effectiveness of the aftertreatment devices and the effect of low temperature combustion modes.
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Improving Time-To-Collision Estimation by IMM Based Kalman Filter

Delphi Corporation-Yixin Chen
Oakland University-Manohar Das, Devendra Bajpai
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
In a CAS system, the distance and relative velocity between front and host vehicles are estimated to calculate time-to-collision (TTC). The distance estimates by different methods will certainly include noise which should be removed to ensure the accuracy of TTC calculations. Kalman filter is a good tool to filter such type of noise. Nevertheless, Kalman filter is a model based filter, which means a correct model is important to get the good filtering results. Usually, a vehicle is either moving with a constant velocity (CV) or constant acceleration (CA) maneuvers. This means the distance data between front and host vehicles can be described by either constant velocity or constant acceleration model. In this paper, first, CV and CA models are used to design two Kalman filters and an interacting multiple model (IMM) is used to dynamically combine the outputs from two filters. In detail, IMM technique is used to estimate the mode probabilities for CV and CA based Kalman filters and mix the two filter results based on the mode probabilities. Then the motion equation…
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