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Real-time Sensing of Particulate Matter in a Vehicle Exhaust System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Delphi Automotive Systems-Gerard W. Malaczynski, Gregory Roth
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1639
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Onboard diagnostic regulations require performance monitoring of diesel particulate filters used in vehicle aftertreatment systems. Delphi has developed a particulate matter (PM) sensor to perform this function. The objective of this sensor is to monitor the soot (PM) concentration in the exhaust downstream of the diesel particulate filter which provides a means to calculate filter efficiency. The particulate matter sensor monitors the deposition of soot on its internal sensing element by measuring the resistance of the deposit. Correlations are established between the soot resistance and soot mass deposited on the sensing element. Currently, the sensor provides the time interval between sensor regeneration cycles, which, with the knowledge of the exhaust gas flow parameters, is correlated to the average soot concentration. Recent advancements in the filtering and processing of the PM Sensor output signal now allow for translation of the sensor resistance signal into real time instantaneous soot mass flow, soot flux, and soot concentration which are available throughout the active zone of the sensor cycle. Additional algorithms provide cumulative soot mass, average flux and average…
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Solder Void Modeling and Its Influence on Thermal Characteristics of MOSFETs in Automotive Electronics Module

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Delphi Automotive Systems-Kesav Kumar Sridharan, Swaminathan Viswanathan
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0011
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Current generation automobiles are controlled by electronic modules for performing various functions. These electronic modules have numerous semiconductor devices mounted on printed circuit boards. Solders are generally used as thermal interface material between surface mount devices and printed circuit boards (PCB) for efficient heat transfer. In the manufacturing stage, voids are formed in solders during reflow process due to outgassing phenomenon. The presence of these voids in solder for power packages with exposed pads impedes heat flow and can increase the device temperature. Therefore it is imperative to understand the effect of solder voids on thermal characteristics of semiconductor devices. But the solder void pattern will vary drastically during mass manufacturing. Replicating the exact solder void pattern and doing detail simulation to predict the device temperature for each manufactured module is not practical. Hence different numerical models are studied for the solder, by using single and distributed void patterns matching the percentage void fraction. The numerical studies indicated that distributed void pattern captures the void behavior well compared to single void model. For the MOSFET…
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Flawless Manufacturing of RACam through XCP Protocol

Delphi Automotive Systems-Chamaraj Melinmath, KM Khalid, Chandrakantha Ursu
Delphi Corp-Umesh Patel, Sreenivasa Parnasala
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
RACam [1] is an Active Safety product designed and manufactured at Delphi and is part of their ADAS portfolio. It combines two sensors - Electronically Scanned RADAR and Camera in a single package. RADAR and Vision fusion data is used to realize safety critical systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB), Lane Departure Warning (LDW), Lane Keep Assist (LKA), Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) and Automatic Headlight Control (AHL).Figure 1RACam Front View.With an increase in Active Safety features in the automotive market there is also a corresponding increase in the complexity of the hardware which supports these safety features. Delphi’s hardware design for Active Safety has evolved over the years. In Delphi’s RACam product there are a number of critical components required in order to realize RADAR and Vision in a single package. RACam is also equipped with a fan and heater to improve the operating temperature range. RADAR and Camera sensors go through unit specific calibration to adjust the sensitivity and alignment of the sensors. Manufacturability of this advanced system needs…
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Development of Electrical-Electronic Controls for a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

Delphi Automotive Systems-Gregory Roth, Andrew Fedewa, Jeremy Kraenzlein, Xiaojian Yang
Delphi Automotive Systems LLC-Donald V. Johnson
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Delphi is developing a new combustion technology called Gasoline Direct-injection Compression Ignition (GDCI), which has shown promise for substantially improving fuel economy. This new technology is able to reuse some of the controls common to traditional spark ignition (SI) engines; however, it also requires several new sensors and actuators, some of which are not common to traditional SI engines. Since this is new technology development, the required hardware set has continued to evolve over the course of the project.In order to support this development work, a highly capable and flexible electronic control system is necessary. Integrating all of the necessary functions into a single controller, or two, would require significant up-front controller hardware development, and would limit the adaptability of the electronic controls to the evolving requirements for GDCI. It is preferable to have a flexible electronic controls architecture that can support the addition, deletion and modification of sensors and/or actuators, and allow these changes to be made rapidly.In addition to the necessary controls interface hardware, the project also requires the ability to rapidly develop,…
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Thermal Electric Analysis of Bond Wires Used in Automotive Electronic Modules

Delphi Automotive Systems-Satishchandra C. Wani
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Bond wires are used in automotive electronic modules to carry current from external harness to components where flexibility under thermal cyclic loading is very essential between PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and connectors. They are very thin wires (few μm) made up of gold, aluminum or copper and have to undergo mechanical reliability to withstand extreme mechanical and thermal loads during different vehicle operation scenarios. Thermal reliability of bond wire is to make sure that it can withstand prescribed electric current under given boundary conditions without fusing thereby retaining electronic module's functionality. While carrying current, bond wire by virtue of its nature resists electric current flow and generates heat also called as joule heating. Joule heating is proportional to current flow and electrical resistance and if not handled properly can lead to thermal run away conditions.In the present scenario the goal is to examine thermal reliability for bond wire when current flows for few milliseconds. Apart from dimensions of bond wire, its joule heating that varies with temperature makes thermal analysis complicated and hence emphases to…
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Energy Efficiency Impact of Localized Cooling/Heating for Electric Vehicle

Delphi Automotive Systems-Mingyu Wang, Debashis Ghosh, Edward Wolfe, Sourav Chowdhury
General Motors Co.-Jeffrey Bozeman
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The present paper reports on a study of the HVAC energy usage for an EREV (extended range electric vehicle) implementation of a localized cooling/heating system. Components in the localized system use thermoelectric (TE) devices to target the occupant's chest, face, lap and foot areas. A novel contact TE seat was integrated into the system. Human subject comfort rides and a thermal manikin in the tunnel were used to establish equivalent comfort for the baseline and localized system. The tunnel test results indicate that, with the localized system, HVAC energy savings of 37% are achieved for cooling conditions (ambient conditions greater than 10 °C) and 38% for heating conditions (ambient conditions less than 10 °C), respectively based on an annualized ambient and vehicle occupancy weighted method. The driving range extension for an electric vehicle was also estimated based on the HVAC energy saving.
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Cavity Fill Balancing Technique for Rubber Injection Molding

Delphi Automotive Systems-Terry Lynn Chapin
Product Research & Design Specialties-Van Thomas Walworth
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Balancing the fill sequence of multiple cavities in a rubber injection mold is desirable for efficient cure rates, optimized cure times, and consistent quality of all molded parts. The reality is that most rubber injection molds do not provide a consistent uniform balanced fill sequence for all the cavities in the mold - even if the runner and cavity layout is geometrically balanced. A new runner design technique, named “The Vanturi Effect”, is disclosed to help address the inherent deficiencies of traditional runner and cavity layouts in order to achieve a more balanced fill sequence.Comparative analysis of molded runner samples reveals a significant and positive improvement in runner and cavity fill balancing when the Vanturi Effect is integrated into the runner design. Research results indicate that a viable and useable relationship exists between the fluid-like characteristics of the rubber flowing through the runner as the rubber flows into and through a specific geometric shape incorporated into the runner layout - which introduces the Vanturi Effect - resulting in improved balanced filling of the runners and…
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Paradox of Miniaturization Trend Versus Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Requirements

Delphi Automotive Systems-Ivan A. Almeida, Luis C. Marcoccia, Enrico F. Curione, Marcelo M. Fernandes
Published 2012-10-02 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, a number of key influences are contributing to accelerate technological innovation in the automotive industrial sector. Concerns about renewable energy resource, fossil-fuels crises and higher gasoline prices, global warming awareness and environmental impacts, scarcity of minerals/metals and electronics demands rising are some of the major challenges for vehicle automakers and their suppliers. The interest in alternative fuel vehicles, especially hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) or renewable energy power concepts for road vehicles has become intensified and represents a significant area of research and development in order to meet nowadays global demands. However because of Hybrid Vehicles unique Power Supply System the electrical/electronic architecture (E/E) is sophisticated, requesting more robust sealing and a particular wiring harness components, such as connector, terminals and cables. On the other hand there is a remarkable miniaturization over automotive Power and Signal Distribution System components following by electronically controlled systems growth to meet customers' demands in quality requirements, driver safety and comfort, and infotainment networking applications. So the scope of this work is to present scenarios of literature as well…
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Energy Harvesting as Strategy for Reducing Vehicles Emissions

Delphi Automotive Systems-Luis C. Marcoccia, Ivan A. Almeida
Published 2012-10-02 by SAE International in United States
In vehicular mobility context, it is extremely important for the environmental sustainability that the available energy will be used as efficiently as possible, both in the use of internal combustion engines (ICE) as powertrain, as well in the application of Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Motors (HEV/EV). In this comparison, ICE has a lower efficiency when compared to electric motors, wasting much of the potential energy of the fuel in form of heat and noise. On the other hand, the electric vehicles face limitation in autonomy and recharge time, demanding for a more efficient use of energy stored in batteries.This study aims to present emerging technologies for reuse of energy within the automotive context, originally known as “Energy Harvesting” and “Renewable Energies”. Besides that, it was analyzed their applications and paradigms that corroborate the international targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG - Greenhouse Gas Emissions) such as CO2 and consumption of fossil fuels. As a result of this revision it was generated a descriptive list of potential sources of renewable energy developments related to the…
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Resistance Welding for Automotive Wiring Harness Connection - Small Gauge Cables

Delphi Automotive Systems-Marcelo Machado Fernandes, Enrico Faria Curione, Ivan Alves de Almeida, Luis Carlos Marcoccia
Published 2012-10-02 by SAE International in United States
Miniaturization is an important trend in many technology segments, once it can enable innovative applications generating new markets. This trend was begun in electronics industry after World War II and has spawned changes into automotive sector also. For Automotive Wiring Harness, miniaturization is clearly presented in most of the components, mainly because of its benefits like the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. Furthermore the main voice of customer points to cable gauge reduction that represents a considerable challenge for connection manufacturing process due to quality control limitations presented by conventional crimp process for 0,35 [mm₂] cables and smaller. According to that, the scope of this article is to present, in details, a manufacturing process optimization for an alternative and more robust technology of joining copper stranded cables to tin brass terminals used on automotive wiring harness, Resistance Welding. This technology shows significant advantages over mechanical crimp process, mainly in regard of electrical performance due to the "zero resistance" effect. As consequence there is a significant improvement on signal stability over time,…
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