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Focus on Challenges in SLD Regime: Reemitted Droplet Modelling

Dassault Aviation-Francois Caminade, Loïc Frazza
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A lot of studies have been carried out over the last decades on SLD ice accretion challenges. Many of them referred to SLD physics modelling such as break-up, splashing, bouncing, etc… and relied on numerous physics experiments. Different models have been developed in Europe and North-America and have been implemented in several numerical tools, widely in 2D but more and more in 3D. As these tools are intended to be used increasingly among the community, deficiencies have to be deeper investigated. This paper provides some highlights on specific needs linked to SLD impingement and ice accretion, especially for 3D high fidelity computations. Regarding the results, deficiencies on the numerical side and on experimental needs will be highlighted in order to feed brainstorming for ongoing SLD projects such as in European Union H2020 ICE-GENESIS.
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Potential Improvements in Turbofan’s Performance by Electric Power Transfer

Hossein Balaghi Enalou
Dassault Aviation-Jean-Marc Le-Peuvedic
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Bleeding in engines is essential to mitigate the unmatched air massflow between low and High Pressure (HP) compressors at low speed settings, thus avoiding unstable operation due to surge and phenomena. However, by emerging the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) the engine is equipped with electrical machines on both high and Low Pressure (LP) spools which enables transfer of power electrically from one spool to another and hence provides the opportunity to operate engine core components closer to their optimum design point at off-design conditions. At lower power setting of the engine, HPC speed can be increased by taking power from LP shaft and feeding it to HP shaft which can lead to the removal of the bleeding system which in turn reduces weight and fuel consumption and help to overcome engine instability issues. Fuel consumption can be decreased by decreasing inconsistent thrust with the aircraft mission for flight and ground idle settings. This paper investigates the idea of power circulation between shafts using a turbofan model developed using Intermediate Control Volume (ICV) method. Results show…
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Runback Water Behavior on Hydro-phobic/philic Surfaces of Circular Cylinder Placed in Flow Field

Dassault Aviation-Benoit Berton
Fraunhofer IFAM-Nadine Rehfeld
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Coating has been recently considered as having good potential for use in preventing in-cloud icing on the leading edge of the lifting surfaces of an aircraft in cold climates. In terms of wettability, a coat may exhibit hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity depending on its specific properties. The same applies to the ice adhesion strength, which may be either high or low. It is thus necessary to determine which type of anti-icing or de-icing coat would be appropriate for a particular application in order to fully utilize its specific properties. Notwithstanding, a coat is incapable of preventing ice accretion by itself, and a perfect icephobic coat is yet to be developed. Coating is also sometimes applied to the surfaces of electrical heaters and load-applying machines to enable them to function more effectively and use less energy. The coating used for an electric heater, for instance, should be hydrophobic because of the need for rapid removal of molten water from the surface. The nanostructured surface of a coating of this type produces a lotus-like effect.During in-cloud icing on…
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ECOA - A New Architecture Concept for Complex Military Software Systems

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Dassault Aviation-Thierry Cornilleau
BAE Systems-Paul Moxon
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2227
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
ECOA is an active software architecture research programme conducted by the French Republic and United Kingdom. It is one product of the recent Defence and Security Co-operation Treaty signed between the two nations. This paper provides an overview of the programme goals and progress as well as an introduction to the technology being developed and comparison to related initiatives.The goal of the ECOA programme is to define an open software architecture that enables collaborative development of mission system software. The ECOA programme is needed to reduce development and lifecycle costs of future military air programmes. For this reason the programme has a specific focus on combat-air mission systems but the underlying technology is general purpose, applying to multiple military and civil domains.At present, the programme has defined a concept, delivered a set of initial technical standards and produced a joint demonstrator to validate the technology developed.
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Model-Based Safety Assessment for the Three Stages of Refinement of the System Development Process in ARP4754A

Dassault Aviation-Valerie Sartor
APSYS-Laurent Sagaspe
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
Model Based Safety techniques have been developed for a number of years, though the models have not been customised to help address the safety considerations/ actions at each refinement level. The work performed in the MISSA Project looked at defining the content of “safety models” for each of the refinement levels. A modelling approach has been defined that provides support for the initial functional hazard analysis, then for the systems architectural definition level and finally for the systems implementation level. The Aircraft functional model is used to apportion qualitative and quantitative requirements, the systems architectural level is used to perform a preliminary systems safety analysis to demonstrate that a system architecture can satisfy qualitative and quantitative requirements. Finally the systems implementation level intends to take behavioural models that can be used to generate qualifiable code from a supplier and to demonstrate that the implemented system conforms to the requirements specified at the systems architectural level. A technique has also been developed to compare the results between the systems architectural level qualitative analysis results with those…
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Semi-Automated Vision-Based Construction of Safety Models from Engineering Drawings

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Dassault Aviation-Valerie Sartor
Airbus-Chris Papadopoulos
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2566
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
The work describes a concept application that aids a safety engineer to create a layup of equipment models by using an image scan of a schematic and a library of predefined standard component and their symbols. The approach uses image recognition techniques to identify the symbols within the scanned image of the schematic from a given library of symbols. Two recognition approaches are studied, one uses General Hough Transform; the other is based on pixel-level feature computation combining both structure and statistical features. The application allows the user to accept or edit the results of the recognition step and allows the user to define new components during the layup step. The tool then generates an output file that is compatible with a formal safety modeling tool. The identified symbols are associated to behavioral nodes from a model based safety tool. The model based safety modeling tool, together with the associated library is used during the last step for the user to link the nodes together and to ensure that the behavior of the equipment is…
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Measurement of Absorption Coefficient, Surface Admittance, Radiated Intensity and Absorbed Intensity on the Panels of a Vehicle Cabin using a Dual Layer Array with Integrated Position Measurement

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Dassault Aviation-Pierre Hardy, Dominique Trentin
ABruel & Kjaer Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S-Jakob Mørkholt, Jørgen Hald
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2170
Published 2009-05-19 by SAE International in United States
In some cases it is important to be able to measure not only the total sound intensity on a panel surface in a vehicle cabin, but also the components of that intensity due to sound radiation and due to absorption from the incident field. For example, these intensity components may be needed for calibration of energy flow models of the cabin noise. Two different methods are introduced in the present paper: one based on surface absorption coefficient and one based on surface admittance. The two methods are compared in terms of underlying assumptions and through simulated and real measurements. The method based on absorption coefficient appears to be the more robust.
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Performance Validation of a Cooling Generation System for a Pilot Thermal Garment

Dassault Aviation-Dominique Carme, Raphaël Bianconi
Honeywell-SECAN-Hélène Fourquet, Jean-Pierre Cimino, Alain Genty, André Rolland
Published 2001-07-09 by SAE International in United States
Pilots in fighter aircraft can be subjected to high temperatures during ground operating phases in hot climate conditions, especially if APU mode is not available.A Cooling Generation System (CGS) used with a protective thermal garment for fighter aircraft pilots has been developed that allows cooling of the pilot in the cockpit. The unit is designed to operate under worst case conditions and requires only that the pilot plugs in upon entering the cockpit.A liquid circulates inside the garment that covers the pilot’s torso, arms and head (area under the helmet). The temperatures are defined to guarantee the user’s comfort. The pilot can adjust the power delivered by the CGS, i.e. the temperature of the circulating fluid, up to a maximum cooling capacity of 400 W. The CGS design is based on a small variable speed compressor with a brushless motor, which is the outcome of a dedicated development, and a custom-made evaporator and condenser for maximum efficiency and minimum volume.A demonstrator of the CGS has been fabricated and tested with pilots under worst case conditions.…
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Automated Assembly of Aircraft Structures at Avcorp Industries Inc., Aerostructures Division

Dassault Aviation-Sylvain da Costa
Avcorp Industries Inc.-Kevin Russell, Alvin Ng
Published 1999-10-06 by SAE International in United States
Avcorp Industries Inc. recognized the need to reduce assembly labor costs in order to stay competitive with global competition. After two years of research and investigation it was determined that a joint project with Dassault Aviation provided the most viable solution.The key elements of the technology developed by Dassault were its high flexibility and rapid payback of capital investment.This paper describes the system and the application. The structure’s design and robotic system design were performed in parallel. A number of design challenges had to be overcome. Many of these issues encountered were common to any automated assembly application. By covering these challenges Avcorp was able to introduce automated assembly at a level that had typically been previously attained exclusively by much larger enterprises.The robotic system consists of two anthropomorphic robots, which work both individually and in tandem. The operations performed include drilling, countersinking, sealant application, cleco insertion, as well as the installation of blind fasteners, solid fasteners and hi-lites. This system is currently performing integration tests and will enter production in fourth quarter 1999. Development…
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The Proposed Revision of FAA AC 20-136, Certification of Aircraft Electrical/Electronic Systems for the Effects of Lightning

Dassault Aviation-Jean-Patrick Moreau
Honeywell, Inc.-Richard F. Hess
Published 1999-06-22 by SAE International in United States
A proposed revision of FAA Advisory Circular AC 20-136 was developed by EUROCAE Working Group 31 and SAE Committee AE4L to address requests by some users of this FAA advisory circular for more specific guidance for selection of equipment transient design levels (ETDL’s) applicable to electrical and avionic systems performing essential or critical functions, and for selection of verification methods for these systems. The proposed revision also makes use of the expanded data base of measured induced transient levels in aircraft since publication of the original draft advisory circular in the United States in 1987 (the original “Orange Book”), to enable descriptions of aircraft interconnecting wiring installations corresponding to each of the standard transient levels. Overall, this proposed revision would offer routes to certification of systems and installations performing critical display or essential functions by reference to level selection guidelines instead of expensive full vehicle tests. If adopted by the certifying agencies, this proposed revision would become (in the U.S.) FAA Advisory Circular 20-136A, and a new advisory circular - joint in Europe. Its implementation…
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