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Simulation Process for the Acoustical Excitation of DC-Link Film Capacitors in Highly Integrated Electrical Drivetrains

Darmstadt University of Technology-Moritz Hülsebrock
AVL LIST GmbH-Julian Pohn
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1500
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The advancing electrification of the powertrain is leading towards new challenges in the field of acoustics. Film capacitors used in power electronics are a potential source of high-frequency interfering noise since they are exposed to voltage harmonics. These voltage harmonics are caused by semiconductor switching operations that are necessary to convert the DC voltage of the battery into three-phase alternating current for the electrical machine. In order to predict the acoustic characteristics of the DC-link capacitor at an early stage of development, a multiphysical chain of effects has to be addressed to consider electrical and mechanical influences. In this paper, a new method to evaluate the excitation amplitude of film capacitor windings is presented. The corresponding amplitudes are calculated via an analytical force based on electromechanical couplings of the dielectric within film capacitors. As a next step, these calculated excitation amplitudes can be used in a FE simulation by applying volumetric strains on capacitor windings. This allows to consider the structural dynamic properties of different capacitor geometries. In order to lower the computational costs, a…
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MUSIC-haic: 3D Multidisciplinary Tools for the Simulation of In-Flight Icing due to High Altitude Ice Crystals

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Darmstadt University of Technology-Ilia Roisman, Cameron Tropea
General Electric Aviation-Paolo Vanacore
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-1962
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Icing is a major hazard for aviation safety. Over the last decades an additional risk has been identified when flying in clouds with high concentrations of ice-crystals where ice accretion may occur on warm parts of the engine core, resulting in engine incidents such as loss of engine thrust, strong vibrations, blade damage, or even the inability to restart engines. Performing physical engine tests in icing wind tunnels is extremely challenging, therefore, the need for numerical simulation tools able to accurately predict ICI (Ice Crystal Icing) is urgent and paramount for the aeronautics industry, especially regarding the development of new generation engines (UHBR = Ultra High Bypass Ratio, CROR = Counter rotating Open Rotor, ATP = Advanced Turboprop) for which analysis methods largely based on previous engines experience may be less and less applicable. The European research project MUSIC-haic has been conceived to fill this gap and has started in September 2018. MUSIC-haic brings together the main European research institutions working on icing modelling as well as engine manufacturers and aircraft manufacturers. The project will…
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Safe and Pleasurable Human Machine Interfaces for Automobile

Darmstadt University of Technology-Ralph Bruder, Bettina Abendroth, Muriel Didier, Michael Schreiber, Margeritta von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff
  • Technical Paper
  • 2008-21-0005
Published 2008-10-20 by Convergence Transportation Electronics Association in United States
As a consequence of the integration of additional systems to support and entertain drivers and passengers the interactions with those systems become more and more time consuming and distracting. It is therefore a basic requirement for the design of Human Machine-Interfaces to minimize the distraction from driving when interacting with those new assistance and entertainment systems. Whereas the safety is a Must-be for the design of HMI for automobiles the joy-of-use is an important aspect for the excitement of drivers. To fulfil the sometimes conflicting demands for safety and pleasure a human centred design approach for HMI design is needed.
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Model-Based Development of Distributed Embedded Real-Time Systems with the DECOS Tool-Chain

Darmstadt University of Technology-Neeraj Suri, Shariful Islam
Austrian Research Centers GmbH - ARC-Wolfgang Herzner, Rupert Schlick
Published 2007-09-17 by SAE International in United States
The increasing complexity of distributed embedded systems, as found today in airplanes or cars, becomes more and more a critical cost-factor for their development. Model-based approaches have recently demonstrated their potential for both improving and accelerating (software) development processes. Therefore, in the project DECOS1, which aims at improving system architectures and development of distributed safety-critical embedded systems, an integrated, model-driven tool-chain is established, accompanying the system development process from design to deployment. This paper gives an overview of this tool-chain and outlines important design decisions and features.
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Experimental Investigations and Computations of Unsteady Flow Past a Real Car Using a Robust Elliptic Relaxation Closure with a Universal Wall Treatment

Darmstadt University of Technology-F. Aldudak, S. Jakirlić, C. Tropea
Darmstadt University of Technology Delft University of Technology-K. Hanjalić
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
In the present work we investigated experimentally and computationally the unsteady flow around a BMW car model including wheels*. This simulation yields mean flow and turbulence fields, enabling the study aerodynamic coefficients (drag and lift coefficients, three-dimensional/spatial wall-pressure distribution) as well as some unsteady flow phenomena in the car wake (analysis of the vortex shedding frequency). Comparisons with experimental findings are presented. The computational approach used is based on solving the complete transient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (TRANS) equations. Special attention is devoted to turbulence modelling and the near-wall treatment of turbulence. The flow calculations were performed using a robust, eddy-viscosity-based ζ - ƒ turbulence model in the framework of the elliptic relaxation concept and in conjunction with the universal wall treatment, combining integration up to the wall and wall functions.
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The Evaluation of AFS Beam Pattern using the Movement of the Driver’s Eye-Fixation Points

Darmstadt University of Technology-H.-J. Schmidt-Clausen
Koito Europe N.V-Carsten Diem
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Since the Adapted Frontlighting System (AFS) was commercialized in 2003, it has helped improve visibility on curves. This paper reports that: The driver’s eye-fixation points change for different areas on a curve. This was found by observing the driver’s gaze behavior in horizontal directions and the road geometry of curves; and There is a correlation between the gaze behavior in horizontal directions and the headlamp lighting, AFS lighting in particular. This correlation was used to evaluate the AFS lighting performance.
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Model-Based Fault Detection for An Active Vehicle Suspension

Darmstadt University of Technology-Daniel Fischer, Rolf Isermann
DaimlerChrysler Research Center Frankfurt-Hans-Peter Schöner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-05-0054
Published 2004-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Korea in South Korea
Automobiles show an increasing number of mechatronic developments by the integration of mechanic and electronic systems. In the case of vehicle suspension systems, this comprises the application of hydraulic, pneumatic and/or electric actuators with the aim of active roll and pitch stabilization and an increase of driving safety and comfort in general. Supplementary, the integration of these actuators and the involved sensors and electronic control units enables a detailed process supervision, fault detection and identification (FDI) for the whole system. This was developed for an active vehicle suspension system on a test rig.The inquired active suspension is a hydraulic fully loaded active suspension, whereat a hydraulic plunger is added in series with the conventional steel spring. This assembly is equivalent to the Active- Body-Control System of DaimlerChrysler. The test rig is equipped with suitable sensors for a series passenger car. The goal is to detect faults of all involved sensors with the distinction of noise, outliers, breakdown, and also offset and gain faults.One approach to solve FDI problems is to use parameter estimation and parity…

Development and Application of a Virtual Soot Loading Sensor

Darmstadt University of Technology-Christian Landgraf, Guenter Hohenberg
Umicore Automotive Catalysts-Egbert Lox, Barry Van Setten, Nicola Soeger, Paul Spurk
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-05-0413
Published 2004-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Korea in South Korea
The particulate filter is set to become a widespread system to control particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel-powered engines. Whereas trapping of soot is easy in general - there do exist a multitude of filtering substrates, offering high efficiencies on dry soot - attention has to be paid to the question of the regeneration process including its initiation, which is still not satisfactorily solved.The soot loading condition and thus the initiation of regeneration process is normally controlled by exhaust gas pressure loss within the filter. However, this measured value characterizes the level of soot loading only incompletely. The accumulated soot mass has to be limited in order to avoid excessive exothermal regeneration which may lead to a destroyed filter substrate. Based on this, regeneration intervals must be shortened due to safety reasons and product durability.A possible solution and improvement represents the application of a Virtual Soot Loading Sensor. This paper reports on development and application work of this sensor, being currently still under development. The sensor claims the ability to calculate accumulated soot mass during…

Fault-Tolerant Filtering in Active Vehicle Suspensions

Darmstadt University of Technology-Daniel Fischer, Rolf Isermann
DaimlerChrysler Research Center-Eberhard Kaus
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-05-0180
Published 2004-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Korea in South Korea
The problem considered in this paper is the design and analysis of a sensor fault-tolerant filtering method for active vehicle suspensions. As the suspension system of an automotive vehicle influences driving comfort and safety, a reliable operation of the system is required.Components, sensors and actuators in physical systems are often subject to unexpected and not permitted deviations from acceptable/usual/standard conditions. These deviations are called faults. Faults can cause the loss of the overall performance of a physical system, which may present hazards to personnel or lead to unacceptable economic loss. The aim of the fault-tolerant control is to adjust or to modify on-line the nominal control laws in order to maintain the safety of the operators and the reliability of the process.This paper aims at investigating the design of a sensor fault- tolerant filtering method mainly because: (1) sensors are critical components in almost all modern engineering system; (2) a sensor fault- tolerant filter can, in principle, indirectly solve the problem of sensor fault-tolerant control. In fact, from the control point of view, sensor fault-tolerant…

Controller Design for An Active Steering System in Passenger Cars Based on Local Linear Models

Darmstadt University of Technology-Jürgen Schmitt, Matthias Schorn, Rolf Isermann
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-05-0046
Published 2004-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Korea in South Korea
A new approach for an active steering control system based on local linear models to improve the lateral dynamic behavior of passenger cars is considered. In combination with braking control systems the active steering system is used to stabilize the vehicle in critical situations.Similar to the Electronic Stability Program (ESP) which uses active braking, the active steering system compares the desired yaw rate calculated from the steering wheel angle with the actual yaw rate. To calculate the desired yaw rate a time-variant one track model is used for a dry road surface. A feedback controller is designed to control the desired yaw rate given by the driver by generating an additional steering wheel angle. The used one track model depends on the vehicle velocity, on front and rear cornering stiffness, on the vehicle mass and on the moment of inertia. Furthermore, dynamic vertical load variation, large tire side slip angles and the influence of roll and pitch motions result in deviations of the one track model. However, the vehicle velocity can be measured and its…