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Development of High Strength Aluminum-Zinc-Silicon Alloy Bearing with Polymer Overlay

Daido Metal Co., Ltd.-Takeshi Hoshina, Seiji Amano, Motohiko Koushima, Kei Ishikura
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Recent automotive engine developments have made great progress in protecting the global environment and in meeting exhaust gas regulations and fuel economy regulations. As a result, engine bearings tend to be used under severe conditions such as higher specific load onto the bearings and with low viscosity of lubricating oil. Aluminum alloy bearings are widely adopted as main bearings and connecting rod bearings in gasoline and diesel engines for passenger cars, and generally Al-Sn-Si alloy bearings without an additional overlay are used. Although these Al-Sn-Si alloy bearings have good anti-seizure properties and excellent running-in-properties, their material strength under high temperature conditions is not sufficient because of the low melting point of Sn phase contained in the alloy, and they could potentially result in damage to the bearing as seizure and fatigue under these conditions.In such cases, Cu-Pb-Sn alloy bearings with lead-based overlay are usually applied. On the other hand Al-Zn-Si alloy bearings with bismuth overlay are also becoming to be applied from the view point of superior corrosion resistance and lower cost. This means that…
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Development of Resin Overlay Bearing Material for Recent Automotive Engine

Daido Metal Co., Ltd.-Erina Yasuda, Hiroki Kobayakawa, Seiji Amano, Yuto Otsuki, Tomohiro Ukai
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The number of vehicles with engines using idling stop systems and hybrid systems to improve fuel consumption has recently been increasing. However, with such systems the frequent starts and stops of the engine, where the oil film between the bearings and shaft is squeezed out and direct contact between the components is more likely, can result in increased wear of the engine bearings, particularly in the main bearing. Bearings with resin overlays have been shown to display superior resistance to wear from such start-stop cycles.Moreover, cast iron shafts without quenching treatment have also been used in engines for cost reduction. Because the cast shaft has low hardness and unstable surface graphite after abrasive finishing, increase in the wear amount cannot be suppressed by conventional resin overlay in comparison with steel shaft. Therefore, the resin overlay with improved wear resistance achieved by adding hard particles was developed. However, the seizure resistance is reduced compared with the previous resin overly because resin overlays with hard particles don’t reform the oil film so readily due to their increased…
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Effect of Noise Factors on Seizure Limit Performance in Engine Main Bearings

Daido Metal Co., Ltd.-Motohiko Koushima
Honda-Takashi Izawa
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
In order to determine the seizure limit of the main bearings of passenger vehicles under actual operating conditions, evaluations were conducted in environments containing noise factors (Various factors which designer cannot adjust and which make function vary were defined as noise factors in this paper.) [1,2] It was shown that noise factors have an effect on seizure limit performance in relation to performance under ideal test conditions (test conditions in which no noise is present). In relation to oil properties, the results showed that a reduction in viscosity as a result of dilution affected seizure limit performance. In relation to the shape of the sliding sections of the test shaft, seizure limit performance declined in a shaft in which the central section was swollen (“convex shaft” below). With regard to partial contact between the shaft and the bearings, it was shown that as the angle of partial contact increases, the seizure limit declines, and that the magnitude of this effect differs depending on the material used in the bearings.
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Development of Lead-Free Copper Alloy Bearing Material with Improved Conformability

Daido Metal Co., Ltd.-Takaaki Kitahara, Takuo Imai, Osamu Ishigo, Miodrag Perovic
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There has been a requirement for automotive bearings materials to be free of the toxic material lead, in accordance with ELV regulations and from the perspective of environmental problems.Currently, bismuth is used as a replacement for lead in copper alloy based main journal bearings and connecting rod bearings for automotive engines. In recent years, there has been changing to lead-free materials for truck engine bearings.Compared with automotive engines, lots of contaminations in the oil and local contact between the shaft and bearings can occur in truck engines. The ability to tolerate contamination and local contact is therefore required for truck engine bearings.In this development, we find that the addition of 8 mass% bismuth and 1.5 mass% molybdenum carbide particles into copper-tin alloy is effective for improving the ability which allow the contamination and local contacts.The development of above mentioned lead-free copper alloy bearing material is described here.
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A Study of Resin Overlay Bearing Material for Recent Automotive Engines

Daido Metal Co Ltd-Hideo Tsuji, Naohisa Kawakami, Colin McAleese, Hiromitsu Katsuki, Kenta Kato
Daido Metal Co., Ltd.-Hiroki Kobayakawa
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
With increased awareness of environmental issues and regulations, developments for recent automotive engines are progressing towards engines with low fuel consumption. Due to these changes, automotive engine bearings are increasingly used in harsher environments, with higher loading and corresponding wear.From this background, resin overlays, where solid lubricant is dispersed in a resin binder, are being developed. Resin overlays show excellent sliding properties under boundary lubrication conditions, and are known to have superior wear and fatigue resistance compared with conventional aluminium based bearings.However, while conventional resin overlay bearings display excellent sliding properties, they tend to have inferior seizure resistance compared to Al-Sn-Si alloy bearings.In this study, by optimizing the strength of the resin overlay layer with addition of calcium carbonate particles, a resin overlay with equal wear resistance but improved seizure resistance was developed. The performance of the developed resin overlay bearings was confirmed with rig tests and engine bench tests.
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Development of High Strength Polymer Based Bearing for Automotive Parts under Boundary Lubrication

Daido Metal Co., Ltd.-Yohei Takada, Hideki Iwata, Takahiro Niwa, Satoshi Kamiya
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Composite bearings of PTFE as the base material have been widely used for automotive parts.However, in recent years, due to downsizing, faster sliding speeds, and tendency to increase the bearing load with high performance, particularly for boundary lubrication conditions, the PTFE-based composite bearing is often worn, making it difficult to apply to some applications.A high strength polymer was selected as an alternative to PTFE base material, and the mechanical properties and performance in a start-stop test, reciprocating sliding test and seizure test were evaluated.Focusing on the characteristics of high strength, by applying a PEEK resin, in each evaluation, it was confirmed that superior performance was achieved compared with a conventional PTFE based composite bearing.
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A Study on Wear Progress of Plain Bearing under Mixed Lubrication Condition

SAE International Journal of Engines

Daido Metal Co., Ltd.-Takahiro Sano, Takeyuki Nakasone, Takeshi Katagiri, Yutaka Okamoto
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0609
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Recently, automotive engines have been operating under harsh conditions of high-power, low viscosity oil and increase of start-stop (e.g. idling stop). In plain bearing used within engine, as oil film thickness decreases, the frequency of direct contacts on the sliding surfaces between the shaft and the bearing are gradually increasing. In fact, the plain bearings for engines would tend to be used under mixed lubrication and the contacts of the surface roughness asperities sometimes occur between the shaft and the bearing. As a result, the bearing wear on the sliding surfaces is accelerated by the contacts of the roughness asperities. In order to predict the bearing performance exactly, it is very important to understand the change progress of the geometric shape of sliding surfaces caused by the wear.Therefore, in this study, to establish the theoretical analysis method of the wear progress of the bearing under mixed lubrication conditions, the following procedures were conducted on a static load: The bearing performance analyses were carried out, based on the mixed lubrication theory which incorporates both the EHL…
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Basic Characteristics of Lead-free Aluminum Alloy Bearings with Low Frictional Property of Adhered Molybdenum Disulfide

Daido Metal Co., Ltd.-Yukihiko Kagohara, Masayuki Niwa, Akira Ono, Hideo Ishikawa
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A newly developed bearing is a lead-free aluminum alloy bearing with low frictional layer which consists of molybdenum disulfide in thicknesses of sub-micron levels on the bearing surface without required binders such as resin. The new bearing had a 50% lower static friction coefficient compared to the conventional aluminum alloy bearing, and exhibited comparable anti-seizure property and fatigue strength to the conventional bearing by evaluation of rig tests. These rig tests verified that the new bearing showed excellent frictional reduction properties. This paper describes details and performances of this newly developed bearing.
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Development of Lead-Free Floating Bush Bearings for Turbochargers

Daido Metal Co., Ltd.-Shinji Ochi, Masahito Fujita, Eisaku Inoue, Atsushi Uno
  • Technical Paper
  • 2006-05-0299
Published 2006-10-22 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Turbochargers have been used for high power automobiles which achieve a rapid acceleration. And a higher performance and a compact turbo design are making progress. Floating bush type bearings are applied to most of the turbochargers running around 100,000 rpm. Good seizure resistance is required for the bearings because of a mixing of foreign obstacles such as carbonates into the oil and a poor oil supply at an engine starting period, although the bearings usually operate at a fully hydrodynamic lubricating condition. Also corrosion resistance and wear resistance are required for basic tribology properties of bearings. Current bearing materials are lead bronze or free-cutting lead brass, on which the lead has played an important role for seizure resistance. However the reduction of use of lead, an environmental pollutant, is required today from the view point of environmental problem. For the above reasons, bearing materials containing bismuth has been developed which can replace lead-contained materials. And also dispersing intermetallic compounds are added to the bearing materials as hard particles in the brass matrix to improve seizure…
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Studies on Lead-free Resin Overlay for Engine Bearings

Daido Metal Co., Ltd.-Takuya Tanaka, Isei Naka, Teruo Abe, Akira Ono, Hideki Iwata, Hiromitsu Sugimura
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Resin-based overlays as lead-free bearing materials for automobile engines are experimentally studied using tribology testing apparatus and an engine bench test rig.A resin overlay newly proposed is composed of Polybenzimidazole (PBI) as the base resin and solid lubricant Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as an additive. PBI has high temperature performance and good adhesion and physical strength under higher temperatures. Consequently, a PBI-based overlay has good sliding properties in terms of wear resistance and fatigue resistance. The resin overlay shows applicability to automobile engine bearings which are used under high loads.
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