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“Fitting Data”: A Case Study on Effective Driver Distraction State Classification

DENSO International America Inc.-Yu Zhang
American Optimal Decisions, Inc.-Alexey Zrazhevsky
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The goal of this project was to investigate how to make driver distraction state classification more efficient by applying selected machine learning techniques to existing datasets. The data set used in this project included both overt driver behavior measures (e.g., lane keeping and headway measures) and indices of internal cognitive processes (e.g., driver situation awareness responses) collected under four distraction conditions, including no-distraction, visual-manual distraction only, cognitive distraction only, and dual distraction conditions. The baseline classification method that we employed was a support vector machine (SVM) to first identify driver states of visual-manual distraction and then to identify any cognitive-related distraction among the visual-manual distraction cases and other non-visual manual distraction cases. The new aspect of this research is optimization of the classification effort, which involved cardinality constraints on 16 overt driver behavior measures. A spline transformation was also implemented to achieve better classification performance. In addition to testing our optimization approach with the SVM, we also explored logistic regression. Results revealed the spline-transformed variables to produce a good “out-of-sample” performance for both the SVM…
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Fuel Efficiency Technology Impact on Radiator Thermal Durability

DENSO International America Inc.-Yilin Tian
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With the increasing stringency of emission regulations, auto makers are now improving vehicle fuel efficiency via all kinds of technologies, such as hybrid systems, turbocharged or supercharged engines, engine auto start/stop, active grille shutters, etc. By implementing a variety of technologies, the engine cooling module’s working environment and work load has changed. This paper will mainly focus on the impact to the thermal durability of the engine cooling module’s main radiator from active grille shutter and electric thermostat implementation. A 2017MY hybrid vehicle using the above technology is evaluated by a wind tunnel test at a variety of ambient temperatures and driving conditions. First, such technologies’ control logic is studied by the wind tunnel test, so that the evaluation condition for evaluating the radiator’s thermal stress can be properly chosen to represent the actual field usage. Then, a single variable method is used to understand the difference in thermal damage mechanism between traditional and new technology conditions, as well as quantify the impact on radiator thermal damage for active grille shutters and electrical thermostat individually.…
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Hazard Cuing Systems for Teen Drivers: A Test-Track Evaluation on Mcity

DENSO International America Inc.-Yu Zhang, Te-Ping Kang
University of Michigan-Michael Flannagan, Shan Bao, Anuj Pradhan, John Sullivan
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
There is a strong evidence that the overrepresentation of teen drivers in motor vehicle crashes is mainly due to their poor hazard perception skills, i.e., they are unskilled at appropriately detecting and responding to roadway hazards. This study evaluates two cuing systems designed to help teens better understand their driving environment. Both systems use directional color-coding to represent different levels of proximity between one’s vehicle and outside agents. The first system provides an overview of the location of adjacent objects in a head-up display in front of the driver and relies on drivers’ focal vision (focal cuing system). The second system presents similar information, but in the drivers’ peripheral vision, by using ambient lights (peripheral cuing system). Both systems were retrofitted into a test vehicle (2014 Toyota Camry). A within-subject experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Mcity test-track facility. The study collected data from seventeen teen participants. Each participant experienced three cuing conditions (focal cuing, peripheral cuing and dual system cuing conditions) as well as three no cuing system conditions (two practice, a…
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Mitigating Unknown Cybersecurity Threats in Performance Constrained Electronic Control Units

DENSO International America Inc-Gopalakrishnan Iyer
DENSO International America Inc.-Ameer Kashani
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Externally-connected Electronic Control Units (ECUs) contain millions of lines of code, which may contain security vulnerabilities. Hackers may exploit these vulnerabilities to gain code execution privileges, which affect public safety. Traditional Cybersecurity solutions fall short in meeting automotive ECU constraints such as zero false positives, intermittent connectivity, and low performance impact. A desirable solution would be deterministic, require minimum resources, and protect against known and unknown security threats. We integrated Autonomous Security on a BeagleBone Black (BBB) system to evaluate the feasibility of mitigating Cybersecurity risks against potential threats. We identified key metrics that should be measured, such as level of security, ease of integration and system performance impact. In this paper, we describe the integration and evaluation process and present its results. We show that Autonomous Security can provide this protection with zero false-positives while meeting automotive constraints.
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Sine Wave Pulse Width Modulation Study for Improving Vehicle Lighting Control

DENSO International America Inc.-Mouhamed Bseileh
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle lighting has become more demanding with different load requirements, strict Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements, accuracy requirements, and power consumption requirements. These requirements are all under the constraint of ever shrinking PCB’s driving up the cost of PCB real estate. Pulse width modulation (PWM) is used to control the interior and exterior lighting in vehicles and meet all these requirements. One or more electronic control units in the body domain of a vehicle contain a number of integrated circuits that drive loads using PWM signals. In addition to driving loads, PWM signals are used for things such as dimming and diagnostic functions. In current technology the PWM signal is usually composed of a trapezoidal wave or rounded wave which control bulbs and light emitting diodes (LED) loads in a vehicle. The trapezoidal or rounded wave may not be the most efficient way to meet requirements in the automotive industry due to their sharp rising edges so different methods have been developed to improve functionality and reduce cost. Using PWM with sine wave control could be…
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Electrification Strategy for Larger Size Light-Duty Vehicles for Improvement of Fuel Economy and Cost Effectiveness

DENSO International America Inc.-Zhe Huang, Masayuki Kita, Robert Cardno
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Electrification has been considered one of the major solutions to meet stringent U.S. fuel economy and CO2 targets of 2025. Numerous published researches are mainly focused on improving fuel economy for passenger cars, but less has been done for larger size light-duty vehicles, such as pickup trucks, SUVs and minivans, which contribute to a considerable amount of vehicle sales in the U.S. market. Due to larger vehicle size and different usage profile, it is expected that the ideal electrification architecture is different than that of a passenger car. The purpose of this study is to identify potential low-voltage electrification solutions for an existing class 2 pickup truck for fuel economy improvement, while taking into account cost effectiveness for large market penetration. One of the potential solutions is presented. In this paper, vehicle electrification configuration concepts are examined by computer simulations. A design of experiment (DOE) is conducted to specify electric powertrain components for each configuration concept. Simulation models are analyzed on two different standard cycles: Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and Highway Fuel Economy Test…
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Comfortable Automated Emergency Brake for Urban Traffic Light Based on DSRC and On-Board Sensors

DENSO International America Inc.-Zaydounr Y. Rawashdeh, Trong-Duy Nguyen, Anoop Pottammal, Rajesh Malhan
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In this work, Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) capabilities combined with classical autonomous vehicles’ on-board sensors (Camera) are used to trigger a Comfortable Emergency Brake (CEB) for urban traffic light intersection scenario. The system is designed to achieve CEB in two phases, the Automated Comfortable Brake (ACB) and the full stop Automated Emergency Brake (AEB). The ACB is triggered first based on the content of the Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) / Map data (MAP) messages received from the Road Side Unit (RSU) at larger distances. And, once the traffic light becomes in the detection field of view of the camera, the output of the Camera-based Traffic Light Detection (TLD) and recognition software is fused with the SPaT/MAP content to decide on triggering the full stop AEB. In the automated vehicle, the current traffic light color and duration received in the SPaT message is parsed; and compared with the TLD output for color matching. The TLD output is used to confirm the correctness of the traffic light status received in SPaT, and used as a…
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Center-Tapped Loosely Coupled Transformer Design for iCab and EV Interoperable Wireless Charger

DENSO International America Inc.-Rajesh Malhan
DENSO International America, Inc.-Wei Zhang
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Wireless power transfer (WPT) technology has started to be applied in charging electrical vehicles (EV). EV models with built-in wireless charging capability is expected to be available from several major automakers in the next few years. Meanwhile, problems associated with the massive adoption of automobiles require new format of vehicles, especially the form with compact size and electric power. An inductively charged autonomous bicycle (iCab) is proposed, which has both the automotive driving and wireless charging features. It is designed to be compatible with an EV wireless charger. The wireless charging interoperability issue of the single transmitting coil capable to charge both the EV and iCab is studied in this paper. The receiving coil of a wireless charger is usually designed to match with single transmitting coil and to have a fixed power level output. To solve this problem, a center-tapped loosely coupled transformer (LCT) is proposed for interoperability between the iCab and EV chargers. Both iCab and EV wireless charging applications are realized with a center-tapped primary coil; multiple power levels output is achieved…
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Real-Time Robust Lane Marking Detection and Tracking for Degraded Lane Markings

DENSO International America Inc.-Satish Vaishnav
University of Waterloo-Michael Smart, Steven Waslander
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Robust lane marking detection remains a challenge, particularly in temperate climates where markings degrade rapidly due to winter conditions and snow removal efforts. In previous work, dynamic Bayesian networks with heuristic features were used with the feature distributions trained using semi-supervised expectation maximization, which greatly reduced sensitivity to initialization. This work has been extended in three important respects. First, the tracking formulation used in previous work has been corrected to prevent false positives in situations where only poor RANSAC hypotheses were generated. Second, the null hypothesis is reformulated to guarantee that detected hypotheses satisfy a minimum likelihood. Third, the computational requirements have been greatly reduced by computing an upper bound on the marginal likelihood of all part hypotheses upon generation and rejecting parts with an upper bound less likely than the null hypothesis. Therefore, parts that could never surpass the null hypotheses are excluded from contributing to the n2 complexity of the tracking and pairing processes. These improvements have led to real-time operation at the frame rate of the stereo camera and robust detection results…
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Impact of Substrate Geometry on Automotive TWC Gasoline (Three Way Catalyst) Performance

DENSO International America Inc.-Ed Szczepanski, Akinori Koda, Daniel Sweeney, Nick Polcyn
DENSO Corporation-Mitsunori Ota
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Tightening global emissions standards are driving automotive Original Equipment Manufacturer’s (OEM’s) to utilize Three Way Catalyst (TWC) aftertreatment systems that can perform with greater efficiency and greater measured control of Precious Group Metals (PGM) use. At the same time, TWC aftertreatment systems minimize exhaust system pressure drops. This study will determine the influence of catalyst substrate cell geometry on emission and PGM usage. Additionally, a study of lightoff and backpressure comparisons will be conducted. The two substrate configurations used are hex/750cpsi and square/750cpsi.
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