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Determining Off-cycle Fuel Economy Benefits of 2-Layer HVAC Technology

DENSO International America Inc-Yuanpei Song, Masahiro Nomura
Argonne National Laboratory-Forrest Jehlik
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
This work presents a methodology to determine the off-cycle fuel economy benefit of a 2-Layer HVAC system which reduces ventilation and heat rejection losses of the heater core versus a vehicle using a standard system. Experimental dynamometer tests using EPA drive cycles over a broad range of ambient temperatures were conducted on a highly instrumented 2016 Lexus RX350 (3.5L, 8 speed automatic). These tests were conducted to measure differences in engine efficiency caused by changes in engine warmup due to the 2-Layer HVAC technology in use versus the technology being disabled (disabled equals fresh air-considered as the standard technology baseline). These experimental datasets were used to develop simplified response surface and lumped capacitance vehicle thermal models predictive of vehicle efficiency as a function of thermal state. These vehicle models were integrated into a database of measured on road testing and coupled with U.S. typical meteorological data to simulate vehicle efficiency across seasonal thermal and operational conditions for hundreds of thousands of drive cycles. Fuel economy benefits utilizing the 2-Layer HVAC technology are presented in addition…
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Mitigating Unknown Cybersecurity Threats in Performance Constrained Electronic Control Units

DENSO International America Inc-Gopalakrishnan Iyer
DENSO International America Inc.-Ameer Kashani
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Externally-connected Electronic Control Units (ECUs) contain millions of lines of code, which may contain security vulnerabilities. Hackers may exploit these vulnerabilities to gain code execution privileges, which affect public safety. Traditional Cybersecurity solutions fall short in meeting automotive ECU constraints such as zero false positives, intermittent connectivity, and low performance impact. A desirable solution would be deterministic, require minimum resources, and protect against known and unknown security threats. We integrated Autonomous Security on a BeagleBone Black (BBB) system to evaluate the feasibility of mitigating Cybersecurity risks against potential threats. We identified key metrics that should be measured, such as level of security, ease of integration and system performance impact. In this paper, we describe the integration and evaluation process and present its results. We show that Autonomous Security can provide this protection with zero false-positives while meeting automotive constraints.
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Identifying Security Vulnerabilities Early in the ECU Software Development Lifecycle

DENSO International America Inc-Jesse Edwards, Ameer Kashani
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In the past few years, automotive electronic control units (ECUs) have been the focus of many studies regarding the ability to affect the deterministic operation of safety critical cyber-physical systems. Researchers have been able to successfully demonstrate flaws in security design that have considerable, dramatic impacts on the functional safety of a target vehicle. With the rapid increase in data connectivity within a modern automobile, the attack surface has been greatly broadened to allow adversaries remote access to vehicle control system software and networks. This has serious implications, as a vast number of vulnerability disclosures released by security researchers point directly to common programming bugs and software quality issues as the root cause of successful exploits which can compromise the vehicle as a whole. In this paper, we aim to bring to light the most prominent categories of bugs found during the software development life cycle of an automotive ECU. We employ the method of static code analysis using reference coding standards such as MISRA and CERT C secure coding guidelines, to identify categories of…
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Proof-of-Concept Numerical Study for NOx Reduction in Diesel Engines Using Enriched Nitrogen and Enriched Oxygen

DENSO International America Inc-Michael Bima, Patrick Powell
Argonne National Laboratory-Kaushik Saha, Anita Ramirez, Sibendu Som, Munidhar Biruduganti
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study. The numerical factors - initial swirl ratio, adaptive mesh refinement and thickness of enriched nitrogen and oxygen regions were also taken into account. Open-cycle combustion simulations were also carried out for specifically selected operating conditions to assess the potential performance…
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