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Development and demonstration of a class 6 range-extended electric vehicle for commercial pickup and delivery operation

Cummins Inc.-John Kresse, Ke Li, Jesse Dalton
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew A. Jeffers, Eric Miller, Kenneth Kelly
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0848
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Range-extended hybrids are an attractive option for medium- and heavy-duty (M/HD) commercial vehicle fleets because they offer the efficiency of an electrified powertrain and accessories with the range of a conventional diesel powertrain. The vehicle essentially operates as if it was purely electric for most trips, while ensuring that all commercial routes can be completed in any weather conditions or geographic terrain. Fuel use and point-source emissions can be significantly reduced, and in some cases eliminated, as many shorter routes can be fully electrified with this architecture. Under a U.S. Department of Energy award for M/HD Vehicle Powertrain Electrification, Cummins has developed a plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) class 6 truck with a range-extending engine designed for pickup and delivery application. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) assisted by developing a representative work day drive cycle for class 6 operation and adapting it to enable track testing. A novel, automated driving system was developed and utilized by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to improve the repeatability of vehicle track testing used to quantify vehicle energy consumption. Cummins…
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Correlation of Cylinder Head Gasket Sealing Analysis Results Between Gasket Element and 3D Continuum Element

Cummins Inc.-Gene McNay
Cummins Engine Co., Ltd.-Amit Ozarde
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0049
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
A head gasket is a component that sits between the engine block/liner and cylinder head(s) in an internal combustion engine. Its purpose is to seal high pressure combustion gasses in the cylinders, seal coolant and engine oil transfer ports between the block and head and to ensure no leakage of gasses or fluids out of the block to head joint; as such, it is the most critical sealing application in an engine. In general practice, the load deflection(L/D) characteristic is generated by the gasket manufacturer for edge molded or composite gasket types. In the case of a solid-sheet metallic gasket, where the gasket is expected to undergo local yielding to provide adequate conformance and sealing, supplier is usually not able to provide the required L/D curve due to difficulties experimentally separating the large loads and small displacements from the elastic loads and deflections of the experimental apparatus. In absence of L/D curve the current analysis approach is to model gasket as 3D continuum elements with considering nonlinear material and contacts. The focus of the procedure…
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Cooling Fan Selection in Power Car Application Using CFD and FEA Analysis

Cummins Inc.-Mukesh Kumar, Vitthal Khandagale, Prashant Kelkar, Rohit Saha
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the methodology used to select an application-based fan that has optimum operating characteristics in terms of cooling air flow rate, fan power, and noise. The selected fan is then evaluated for structural strength.To evaluate different fans, complete rail coach under-hood simulations were carried out using steady-state 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. These simulations considered an actual, highly non-uniform flow field. For each fan option, fan power, air flow rate, and surface acoustic power was evaluated. Pressure profiles on the fan blades were studied to assess the effect of non-uniform downstream air passage designs. Surface acoustic power was calculated using broadband noise source (BNS) model in ANSYS Fluent®. Surface pressure profiles over fan blades imported from 3D CFD were used in finite element analysis (FEA) in ANSYS. Analyses were carried out for blade linear and non-linear properties. Equivalent fully reversed (EFR) stress was calculated based on an internal code that uses Goodman theory.It can be concluded from simulation study that the fluid structural coupled approach can be used to predict and optimize…
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Phenomenological Investigations of Mid-Channel Ash Deposit Formation and Characteristics in Diesel Particulate Filters

Cummins Inc.-Yujun Wang
Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Carl Justin Kamp, Sujay Bagi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Accumulation of lubricant and fuel derived ash in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during vehicle operation results in a significant increase of pressure drop across the after-treatment system leading to loss of fuel economy and reduced soot storage capacity over time. Under certain operating conditions, the accumulated ash and/or soot cake layer can collapse resulting in ash deposits upstream from the typical ash plug section, henceforth termed mid-channel ash deposits. In addition, ash particles can bond (either physically or chemically) with neighboring particles resulting in formation of bridges across the channels that effectively block access to the remainder of the channel for the incoming exhaust gas stream. This phenomenon creates serious long-term durability issues for the DPF, which often must be replaced. Mid-channel deposits and ash bridges are extremely difficult to remove from the channels as they often sinter to the substrate.The current study is comprised of analyzing field-return/field-aged DPF units exhibiting variations in ash bridging, characterized by high resolution X-ray CT, XRD, XRF and SEM-EDS. X-ray CT with a transmission X-ray source (voxel size…
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Development of Parametric Tool to Design Base Frame for Cummins Marine Application Engine

Cummins Inc.-Mukesh Kumar, Neeraja Rajasekhar, Prachi Pokharkar, Bibhu Mahanta, Rohit Saha
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A spread sheet based parametric tool is developed to design the base frame for a marine generator-set. Factors such as engine details, generator details, anti-vibration mount (AVM) etc., that determine the design of the base frame, are set as parameters in the spreadsheet. The spreadsheet has formulae to calculate channel specifications, and AVM deflections. It is linked to channel standards database and selects the optimal channel based on calculations. Similarly, the tool provides guidance in selection of AVM from supplier catalogues, helps to predict number of anti-vibration mounts required and their location on base frame. This spread sheet is integrated with a generic base frame 3D model and 2D print in “Creo 3d modelling software” (Creo), which is auto-updated based on calculated parameters in the spreadsheet. Using this tool, the user can generate a 3D-model and 2D print. This tool helps to standardize the design process and reduces design turnaround time considerably. The output of the tool and existing base frame designs were analysed using a finite element tool (ANSYS). Modal and static analysis were…
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The Thermodynamic Design, Analysis and Test of Cummins’ Supertruck 2 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency Engine System

Cummins Inc.-Daniel Mohr, Timothy Shipp, Xueting Lu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Current production heavy duty diesel engines have a brake thermal efficiency (BTE) between 43-46% [1]. In partnership with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Supertruck 2 program, Cummins has undertaken a research program to develop a new heavy-duty diesel engine designed to deliver greater than 50% BTE without the use of waste heat recovery. A system level optimization focused on: increased compression ratio, higher injection rate, carefully matched highly efficient turbocharging, variable lube oil pump, variable cooling components, and low restriction after treatment designed to deliver 50% BTE at a target development point. This work will also illustrate the system level planning and understanding of interactions required to allow that same 50% BTE heavy duty diesel engine to be integrated with a waste heat recovery (WHR) system to deliver system level efficiency of 55% BTE at a single point. In addition to a test bench demonstration, the described system is also planned to be demonstrated at a vehicle system level. This paper summarizes the process and results of the 50%…
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Durability Study of a High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using Lubricity Additive Dosed Gasoline-Like Fuel - Additional Cycle Runtime and Teardown Analysis

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Cummins Inc.-Roberto Medina, John Nelson
Aramco Research Center - Detroit-Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Vincent Costanzo
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0263
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This study is a continuation of previous work assessing the robustness of a Cummins XPI common rail injection system operating with gasoline-like fuel. All the hardware from the original study was retained except for the high pressure pump head and check valves which were replaced due to cavitation damage. An additional 400 hour NATO cycle was run on the refurbished fuel system to achieve a total exposure time of 800 hours and detect any other significant failure modes. As in the initial investigation, fuel system parameters including pressures, temperatures and flow rates were logged on a test bench to monitor performance over time. Fuel and lubricant samples were taken every 50 hours to assess fuel consistency, metallic wear, and interaction between fuel and oil. High fidelity driving torque and flow measurements were made to compare overall system performance when operating with both diesel and light distillate fuel. Injector rate shapes were measured as a function of time, and high resolution x-ray imaging of the nozzle tips was performed as part of the final teardown analysis.…
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Multi-Domain Optimization for Fuel Economy Improvement of HD Trucks

Cummins Inc.-Guoqiang (Grant) Li, Rohit Saha, Chia-Siung Yu, Dan Burns
Beiqi Foton Motor Co., LTD.,-Tang Bo, Meiyou Lin
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Fuel usage negatively impacts the environment and is a significant portion of operational costs of moving freight globally. Reducing fuel consumption is key to lessening environmental impacts and maximizing freight efficiency, thereby increasing the profit margin of logistic operators. In this paper, fuel economy improvements of a cab-over style 49T heavy duty Foton truck powered by a Cummins 12-liter engine are studied and systematically applied for the China market.Most fuel efficiency improvements are found within the vehicle design when compared to opportunities available at the engine level. Vehicle design (improved aerodynamics), component selection/matching (low rolling resistance tires), and powertrain electronic features integration (shift schedule/electronic trim) offer the largest opportunities for lowering fuel consumption.The powertrain features include Cummins adaptive torque modulation and transmission neutral coasting. 3D CFD (ANSYS Fluent®) was used to carry out external truck aerodynamics study, and Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) was used to study and optimize the powertrain integration features. A system simulation model was developed on a baseline truck and calibrated via on-road testing. An energy study quantified the contribution of…
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EGR Cooler Field Return Rate Evaluation Based on Product and Application Variation

Cummins Inc.-Billy Holland
Senior Flexonics-William M. Rixon, Ryan Collins, Brian Costello
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry drives some of the most stringent product requirements to ensure long product life and customer satisfaction. To demonstrate compliance with these requirements new and more accurate evaluation methods are needed. Thermal fatigue life in EGR coolers for heavy duty diesel applications have historically been a critical focus for engine OEMs. Being able to accurately evaluate product return rates due to thermal fatigue failures gives the OEM confidence that all end users will be satisfied, and allows program management to properly make fiscal decisions. Additionally, weight and cost optimization can be conducted with greater confidence. This is accomplished by accounting for product variation and application variation in thermal fatigue life evaluations. Including these variations requires a simplified numerical method to calculate product life, as tens of thousands of samples will be run through the analysis to represent real life random variation. First, time dependent component temperatures are calculated based on engine conditions. The component temperatures are used to determine strain, which is then used to evaluate thermal fatigue life. Appling this life calculation…
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Diagnostics of Field-Aged Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) on Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines

Cummins Inc.-Di Wang, Hongmei An, Jian Gong, Junhui Li, Krishna Kamasamudram, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Three-way catalysts have been used in a variety of stoichiometric natural gas engines for emission control. During real-world operation, these catalysts have experienced a large number of temporary and permanent deactivations including thermal aging and chemical contamination. Thermal aging is typically induced either by high engine-out exhaust temperatures or the reaction exotherm generated on the catalysts. Chemical contamination originates from various inorganic species such as Phosphorous (P) and Sulfur (S) that contain in engine fluids, which can poison and/or mask the catalyst active components. Such deactivations are quite difficult to simulate under laboratory conditions, due to the fact that multiple deactivation modes may occur at the same time in the real-world operations.In this work, a set of field-aged TWCs has been analyzed through detailed laboratory research in order to identify and quantify the real-world aging mechanisms. Based on the measured NOx conversion efficiency, we identified that thermal aging was the major aging mechanism for all the field-aged TWCs investigated. Additionally, chemical contaminants such as Phosphorous (P) and Sulfur (S) containing species were also detected at…
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