Your Selections

Continental
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Balancing Hydraulic Flow and Fuel Injection Parameters for Low-Emission and High-Efficiency Automotive Diesel Engines

Continental-Giovanni Avolio
General Motors-Francesco Concetto Pesce, Alberto Vassallo, Giacomo Belgiorno
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of new light-duty vehicle emission limits to comply under real driving conditions (RDE) is pushing the diesel engine manufacturers to identify and improve the technologies and strategies for further emission reduction. The latest technology advancements on the after-treatment systems have permitted to achieve very low emission conformity factors over the RDE, and therefore, the biggest challenge of the diesel engine development is maintaining its competitiveness in the trade-off “CO2-system cost” in comparison to other propulsion systems. In this regard, diesel engines can continue to play an important role, in the short-medium term, to enable cost-effective compliance of CO2-fleet emission targets, either in conventional or hybrid propulsion systems configuration. This is especially true for large-size cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles.In this framework, a comprehensive approach covering the whole powertrain is of primary importance in order to simultaneously meet the performance, efficiency, noise and emission targets, and therefore, further development of the combustion system design and injection system represent important levers for additional improvements. For this purpose, a dedicated 0.5 dm3 single-cylinder engine has…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Strive for Zero Emissions Impact from Hybrids

Continental-Lorenzo Pace, Katrin Konieczny
Volvo Car Corporation-Mats Laurell, Fredrik Ekström
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Since several decades, passenger cars and light duty vehicles (LDV) with spark-ignited engines reach full pollutant conversion during warm up conditions; the major challenge has been represented by the cold start and warming up strategies. The focus on technology developments of exhaust after treatment systems have been done in the thermal management in order to reach the warm up conditions as soon as possible. A new challenge is now represented by the Real Driving Emission (RDE) Regulation as this bring more various, and not any longer cycle defined, cold start conditions. On the other hand, once the full conversion has been reached, it would be beneficial for many Exhaust After Treatment System (EATS) components, e.g. for overall durability if the exhaust gas temperature could be lowered. To take significant further emission steps, approaching e.g. zero emission concepts, we investigate the use of Electrical Heating Catalyst (EHC) also including pre-heating.The clear goal is to have the right temperature in the right place at the right time. Several approaches have been investigated in this paper regarding EATS…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Hybrid Powertrain Technology Assessment through an Integrated Simulation Approach

Continental-Naroa Zaldua-Moreno, Lorenzo Pace
Ford Werke GmbH-Harald Stoffels
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Global automotive fuel economy and emissions pressures mean that 48 V hybridisation will become a significant presence in the passenger car market. The complexity of powertrain solutions is increasing in order to further improve fuel economy for hybrid vehicles and maintain robust emissions performance. However, this results in complex interactions between technologies which are difficult to identify through traditional development approaches, resulting in sub-optimal solutions for either vehicle attributes or cost. The results presented in this paper are from a simulation programme focussed on the optimisation of various advanced powertrain technologies on 48 V hybrid vehicle platforms. The technologies assessed include an electrically heated catalyst, an insulated turbocharger, an electric water pump and a thermal management module. The novel simulation approach undertaken uses an integrated toolchain capturing thermal, electrical and mechanical energy usage across all powertrain sub-systems. Through integrating 0-D and 1-D sub-models into a single modelling environment, the operating strategy of the technologies can be optimised while capturing the synergies that exist between them. This approach enables improved and more informed cost/benefit ratios for…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

An Optical and Numerical Characterization of Directly Injected Compressed Natural Gas Jet Development at Engine-Relevant Conditions

Continental-Mike Hornby, Doug Cosby, Perry Czimmek
Ford Motor Co Ltd-Adam Smith
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is an attractive, alternative fuel for spark-ignited (SI), internal combustion (IC) engines due to its high octane rating, and low energy-specific CO2 emissions compared with gasoline. Directly-injected (DI) CNG in SI engines has the potential to dramatically decrease vehicles’ carbon emissions; however, optimization of DI CNG fueling systems requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of CNG jets in an engine environment.This paper therefore presents an experimental and modeling study of DI gaseous jets, using methane as a surrogate for CNG. Experiments are conducted in a non-reacting, constant volume chamber (CVC) using prototype injector hardware at conditions relevant to modern DI engines. The schlieren imaging technique is employed to investigate how the extent of methane jets is impacted by changing thermodynamic conditions in the fuel rail and chamber.Post-processing of these optical results presents challenges because of the similarity between the density of methane and the background nitrogen. A methodology to interpret the jet extent in the high-speed movies is therefore proposed and used to quantify methane jet propagation and structure. The…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Algorithm Design for Filtering Input Shaft Speed from Judder and Minimize Static Error by Phase Advance Method

Continental-Dongjin Lee
Published 2015-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Accuracy of clutch torque model which converts target torque to target stroke is essential to control the dry clutch system. Continuous Adaptation algorithm requires micro slip control during in-gear driving. Clutch judder during micro slip control can cause detrimental effect on the output of controller as slip speed is calculated by deviation of engine speed and clutch speed. Conventional approach to avoid clutch judder is using low pass filter to the input of controller which is slip speed. But this affect to the overall response time of slip controller.In this paper, signal processing algorithm is design and tested for the clutch speed(Input shaft speed). With low pass filter in clutch speed, clutch judder signal is decreased but overall time delay creates static error during acceleration. Several phase advance algorithm is designed to overcome the static error during acceleration without disadvantage of decreasing clutch judder signal.After the simulation, low pass filter with phase advance method which using wheel speed signal as source of phase advance shows optimal result considering judder signal decrease and minimal static error…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Influence of Test Procedure on Friction Behavior and its Repeatability in Dynamometer Brake Performance Testing

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Continental-Achim Reich
Consultant-Harald Abendroth
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2521
Published 2014-09-28 by SAE International in United States
The efforts of the ISO “Test Variability Task Force” have been aimed at improving the understanding and at reducing brake dynamometer test variability during performance testing. In addition, dynamometer test results have been compared and correlated to vehicle testing.Even though there is already a vast amount of anecdotal evidence confirming the fact that different procedures generate different friction coefficients on the same brake corner, the availability of supporting data to the industry has been elusive up to this point. To overcome this issue, this paper focuses on assessing friction levels, friction coefficient sensitivity, and repeatability under ECE, GB, ISO, JASO, and SAE laboratory friction evaluation tests. With multiple companies (or programs) developing and assessing the friction coefficient and friction behavior under different methods, it is inevitable to avoid conflicts of performance requirements or lack of reproducibility or correlation of test results under different test methods.In order to provide an evaluation consistent with previous phases of the Task Force activities, the same brake corner assembly and same friction material is used for this study. The study…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Technical Leadership Challenges for Highly Automated Driving: Technology Leadership Brief

Continental-Christian Schumacher
Continental Automotive Systems NA-Dean L. McConnell
Published 2012-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Driver assistance features have been introduced to the market focusing on basic, independent functional scenarios. The trend is showing that these kinds of products are facing more and more complex scenarios and we are transitioning from single independent functions to a strongly networked system. Some of the drivers for future autonomous vehicles are 360° monitoring by active safety technology and V2X (vehicle to vehicle or vehicle to infrastructure) communication.In the past vehicles were strictly operated by the driver. Advanced driver assistance products added so called feedback features like lane departure warning, forward collision warning, and blind spot monitoring.First steps towards semi-autonomous driving started with the development of active support functions like adaptive cruise control or lane keeping support.Collision mitigation with various authority levels is the next milestone towards automation followed by other, even more advanced, features.Over the next several years the industry will see a transition from driver only operations and assisted driving, to partly/highly automated driving, and ultimately up to fully automated driving.In our presentation, we will highlight the challenges and opportunities we face,…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Simulative Investigation of Wheel Brakes in Terms of the Anchor Load and Pad Movement

Continental-Ulrich Ungethuem, Dirk Simon
Technische Universität Darmstadt-Mathias Haag, Junli Fan, Hermann Winner
Published 2011-09-18 by SAE International in United States
In the research project between the Institute of Automotive Engineering (FZD) of the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TUD) and Continental Teves AG & Co. oHG a new modeling concept has been developed. With the aim to enhance the current development process, the brake caliper is modeled based on coupled rigid bodies integrated into a nonlinear system model. Using an explicit interface definition, the number of degrees of freedom is minimized and the calculation of caliper performance is possible over a wide range of parameters. Compared to models based on the Finite Element Method (FEM), fully parameterized geometry from CAD is not necessary, thus the caliper can be optimized for a variation of its geometrical and physical parameters. With this modeling approach, typical performance criteria such as caliper fluid displacement, hysteresis, uneven pad wear and residual torque can be calculated in a virtual bench test. Additionally, the pull-push-characteristic and the tendency towards radial pad movement can be assessed. The results are generated before assigning the design parameters in CAD and are suitable to achieve frontloading in the…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Crosswalk Recognition Method for the Pedestrian Collision Avoidance System

Continental-Michael Darms, Rolf Adomat
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology-Hirotomo Muroi, Ikuko Shimizu, Yuta Takimoto, Pongsathorn Raksincharoensak, Masao Nagai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2009-08-0566
Published 2009-10-07 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A robust crosswalk recognition method is proposed from an image sequence captured by an on-board single camera. This method is applied to a driver assistance system for preventing pedestrian accidents utilizing the information of the crosswalk location. A crosswalk in the image is recognized by calculating the 'cross ratio' of the edge points, which is an invariant of perspective projection. The proposed method achieves robust recognition using prior knowledge about the crosswalks in the image and consistency check through the image sequence. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed by a number of public road image sequences.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of Pedestrian Detection and Collision Warning System by Using Monocular Camera and Millimeter Wave Radar

Continental-Michael Darms, Rolf Adomat
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology-Pongsathorn Raksincharoensak, Yuta Takimoto, Hirotomo Muroi, Ikuko Shimizu, Masao Nagai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2009-08-0289
Published 2009-05-20 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This paper proposes a pedestrian collision avoidance system based on a monocular camera and a millimeter wave radar, as one of the active safety technologies to protect pedestrians. The method to decide about the presence of a pedestrian is based on the assumption that objects moving along a crosswalk can be interpreted as pedestrians under certain circumstances. The camera can be used to detect the crosswalk. Data from both sensors can then be used to infer about the presence of a pedestrian. The sensor fusion algorithm which combines data from the sensors is explained. Then the paper describes a warning concept which provides visual information about the presence of a pedestrian to the driver, depending on an estimated probability for a collision. Finally, results from test drives on an experimental vehicle which verifies that the system running in practice are presented.