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Flight in Icing Regulatory Evolution and the Influence on Aircraft Design

Boeing Co.-David Leopold
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Flight in icing for transport category aircraft certification presents a particularly challenging set of considerations to establish adequate safety commensurate with the associated risk while balancing design complexity and efficiency. A review highlighting important aspects of the regulatory evolution and guiding principles for flight in icing certification is presented, including the current standards and recent rulemaking activity. While historical icing certification relied on a simple yet subjective requirement to demonstrate that an aircraft is capable of operating safely within the prescribed icing envelopes, the certification requirements associated with demonstrating an adequate level of safety have progressively evolved into more explicit quantitative performance and qualitative handling qualities standards now scattered throughout the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) Part 25 Subpart B Flight standards which are largely harmonized with other regulatory agencies. Recent rulemaking activity, including the potential branching of the regulatory structure to address modern fly-by-wire aircraft not envisioned at the inception of the original flight standards, have firmly engrained flight in icing certification as a major design consideration with…
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Progressive Disintermediation of the Commercial Aviation Industry Ecosystem

Boeing Co.-Robert John Rencher
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
The re-invention of the global aviation industry is well underway. This dramatic change is being achieved through the use of emergent technology to facilitate a progressive disintermediation of traditional aviation business solutions and services. This progressive disintermediation will continue unabated as this technology is adopted and deployed within the aviation industry. The challenge and opportunity is to whom will lead this re-invention and how will it be accomplished. The integrated use of rapidly evolving technology (Blockchain, IoT, Artificial Intelligence, 5G Cellular Technology and Mobile Edge Computing) is facilitating an integrated more industry cooperative approach enabling this progressive disintermediation. The Boeing Company and other industry leaders are challenging themselves and others by embracing this re-inventive opportunity and by cooperatively learning from peer industries, then adapting the knowledge for applicability to the aviation industry to reform or re-define the aviation ecosystem. Boeing has conducted several proof of concepts with these respective technology sets to validate the efficacy of the technology and to establish a baseline understanding of the interoperability opportunity. What if we do nothing? How long…
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A Phased Approach to Optimized Robotic Assembly for the 777X

Boeing Co.-Ryan Mir
Electroimpact Inc.-Russell DeVlieg
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
Low rate initial production of the 777X flight control surfaces and wing edges has been underway at the Boeing St. Louis site since early 2017. Drilling, inspection, and temporary fastening tasks are performed by automated multi-function robotic systems supplied by Electroimpact. On the heels of the successful implementation of the initial four (4) systems, Phases II and III are underway to meet increasing production demands with three (3) and four (4) new cells coming online, respectively. Assemblies are dedicated to particular cells for higher-rate production, while all systems are designed for commonality offering strategic backup capability. Safe operation and equipment density are optimized through the use of electronic safeguards. New time-saving process capabilities allow for one-up drilling, hole inspection, fastening, fastener inspection, and stem shaving. Multi-function end effectors with dual spindles permits drilling and reaming within a single clamp, and hybrid cutting fluid delivery enables a no-compromise approach to process optimization. New automated health checks and calibrations limit the need for operators and maintenance personnel to access the equipment. The integration of these innovative technologies…
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Digital Ply Tracing Software for Composite Repairs

Boeing Co.-Leng Vongchanh, Martin Szarski
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
With the increasing usage of composites for aerodynamic surfaces, the use of bonded composite repair processes are becoming more common. The repair process remains a largely manual process, with repair technicians scarfing or stepping, tracing the plies, fabricating repair patches and finally bonding the patch. The patch fabrication process becomes increasingly tedious and tiring due to cutting and tracing of each individual ply twice for thermal surveying and the final repair patch. We have developed a system that can replace the tracing and cutting components of the fabrication process using low cost, commercial off the shelf (COTS) tools. We present the ply boundary extraction method used and detail the nesting algorithm used to produce the final plies. Our software is benchmarked against the manual process with a list of successfully cut materials using a low cost fabric cutter with a steel drag blade. Our system provides up to 60% improvement in ply fabrication times for lower strength materials (e.g. fiberglass) and comparable times for high strength materials (e.g. carbon fiber).
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Managing Aerospace Projects

Boeing Co.-Jimmy Williams, Jr.
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-183
Published 2017-09-12 by SAE International in United States

Over the next twenty years, the role and contributions of successfully managed projects will continue to grow in importance to aerospace organizations, especially considering the demands of emerging markets.

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Integrated Vehicle Health Management - System of Systems Integration

Boeing Co.-Timothy Wilmering
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-182
Published 2017-07-24 by SAE International in United States
Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) is the unified capability of a system of systems (SoS) to assess the current or future state of the member system health, and integrate it within a framework of available resources and operational demand. As systems complexities have increased, so have system support costs, driven by more frequent and often enigmatic subsystem failures. IVHM strategies can be used to mitigate these issues by taking a Systems of Systems view. Combined with advanced decision support methods, this approach can be used to more effectively predict, isolate, schedule, and repair failed subsystems, reducing platform support costs and minimizing platform down time. Integrated Vehicle Health Management- System of Systems Integration brings together ten seminal SAE technical papers addressing the challenges and solutions to maintaining highly complex vehicles. The strategy requires that the IVHM system must provide actionable decision support to operators and maintainers, informing platform operational capabilities and maintenance procedures. The goal is to prevent a given component from degrading to the point of failure or predictable impending failure. Specifications should also reflect…
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Progress in Rotorcraft Icing Computational Tool Development

Boeing Co.-Robert Narducci
Georgia Institute of Technology-Lakshmi Sankar
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The formation of ice over lifting surfaces can affect aerodynamic performance. In the case of helicopters, this loss in lift and the increase in sectional drag forces will have a dramatic effect on vehicle performance. The ability to predict ice accumulation and the resulting degradation in rotor performance is essential to determine the limitations of rotorcraft in icing encounters. The consequences of underestimating performance degradation can be serious and so it is important to produce accurate predictions, particularly for severe icing conditions. The simulation of rotorcraft ice accretion is a challenging multidisciplinary problem that until recently has lagged in development over its counterparts in the fixed wing community. But now, several approaches for the robust coupling of a computational fluid dynamics code, a rotorcraft structural dynamics code and an ice accretion code have been demonstrated.
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Flex Track One Sided One Up Assembly

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Boeing Co.-Riley HansonSmith, Alan Merkley
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2274
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The Boeing Company is striving to improve quality and reduce defects and injuries through the implementation of lightweight “Right Sized” automated drill and fasten equipment. This has lead to the factory adopting Boeing developed and supplier built flex track drill and countersink machines for drilling fuselage circumferential joins, wing panel to spar and wing splice stringers. The natural evolution of this technology is the addition of fastener installation to enable One Up Assembly. The critical component of One Up Assembly is keeping the joint squeezed tightly together to prevent burrs and debris at the interface. Traditionally this is done by two-sided machines providing concentric clamp up around the hole while it is being drilled. It was proposed that for stiff structure, the joint could be held together by beginning adjacent to a tack fastener, and assemble the joint sequentially using the adjacent hole clamp up from the previous hole to keep the joint clamped up. This process would significantly decrease the costs and complexity that is usually associated with two sided equipment involved in One…
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Soaring with Eagles: Birdstrike Analysis in the Design and Operation of New Airplanes

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Boeing Co.-John C. Dalton, Roger Nicholson
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2234
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
We live in an era of increasing twin-engine commercial airplane operations, with large and very quiet high bypass ratio engines. At the same time, due to several decades of increased attention to the environment, we have large and increasing hazardous species bird populations. These trends, when combined, are not a prescription for continued assurance of a remarkable and enviable safety record for commercial aviation. Therefore, greater diligence must be placed on the evaluation of the current and future aviation wildlife hazard. We have some new weapons in this fight for greater capability to live with this situation. The basic problem is that different databases are populated independently from one another and often contain conflicting, contradictory, and erroneous data.Databases that were used individually, but not necessarily combined, are being utilized in a conjoined methodology to give us a better picture of the actual risk involved. And new analytical techniques are being applied that will enable us to better visualize and evaluate the nature of the wildlife threat. This paper will attempt to dispel some of the…
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Parametric Life Cycle Assessment for the Design of Aircraft

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Boeing Co.-Emily Dallara, Joshua Kusnitz, Marty Bradley
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2277
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Current methods of life cycle assessment (LCA) include input-output (IO) models and process-based LCA. These methods either require excessive effort and time to reach a conclusion (process LCA) or do not adequately model how a change in a product's design will affect the environmental footprint (IO LCA).A variation of process-based LCA developed specifically for aircraft is presented in this study. A tool implementing this LCA, “qUWick,” is rapid and easily applicable to multi-disciplinary design optimization of aircraft. Models developed for the material production, manufacturing, usage, and end-of-life of an aircraft are examined. Outputs of qUWick are discussed for future air vehicles.When compared to process LCAs with similar boundaries, qUWick gives similar results, however qUWick models several stages of an aircraft's life cycle more accurately than other aircraft process-based LCAs. Comparison to IO LCAs suggests an underestimation of supply chain as well as maintenance impacts and points towards areas of future improvements for the qUWick LCA tool.
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