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Effect of Octane on the Performance of Two Gasoline Direct Injection Passenger Cars

BP International Ltd-John Williams
Concawe-David Rickeard, Heather Hamje
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The performance aspect of gasoline combustion has traditionally been measured using Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) which describe antiknock performance under different conditions. Recent literature suggests that MON is less important than RON in modern cars and a relaxation in the MON specification could improve vehicle performance, while also helping refiners in the production of gasoline. At the same time, for the same octane number change, increasing RON appears to provide more benefit to engine power and acceleration than reducing MON. It has also been suggested that there could be fuel efficiency benefits (on a tank to wheels basis) for specially adapted engines, for example, operating at higher compression ratio, on very high RON (100+). Other workers have advocated the use of an octane index (OI) which incorporates both RON and MON to give an indication of octane quality.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of RON and MON on the power and acceleration performance of two Euro 4 gasoline vehicles under full throttle acceleration conditions. Fifteen fuels…
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Measuring the Impact of Engine Oils and Fuels on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Downsized Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BP International Ltd-James Moss, John Williams
University of Cambridge-Orian Welling, Nick Collings
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1219
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
One of the limits on the maximum fuel efficiency benefit to be gained from turbocharged, downsized gasoline engines is the occurrence of low speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI may lead to high pressures and extreme knock (megaknock or superknock) which can cause severe engine damage. Though the mechanism leading to megaknock is not completely resolved, LSPI is thought to arise from local auto-ignition of areas in the cylinder which are rich in low ignition delay “contaminants” such as engine oil and/or heavy ends of gasoline. These contaminants are introduced to the combustion chamber at various points in the engine cycle (e.g. entering from the top land crevice during blow-down or washed from the cylinder walls during DI wall impingement).This paper describes a method for testing the propensity of different contaminants to cause a local pre-ignition in a gasoline engine. During one cycle, a small amount of contaminant is injected into one cylinder of a 4 cylinder engine. The spark is suppressed during this or the following cycle to allow detection of local pre-ignition events after spark…
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Evaluating Synergies between Fuels and Near Term Powertrain Technologies through Vehicle Drive Cycle and Performance Simulation

BP International Ltd-John Williams, Rana Ali
Mahle Powertrain Ltd-Andre Bisordi, Dave OudeNijeweme, Michael Bassett, Philip Stansfield
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The main focus nowadays for the development of future vehicle powertrain systems is the improvement in fuel efficiency alongside the reduction of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gasses, most notably carbon dioxide.The automotive community is already engaged in seeking solutions to these issues, however, the ideal solution, namely zero emission vehicle is still regarded as being a long way from fruition for the mass market. In the meantime steps are being taken, in terms of engineering development, towards improved fuel efficiency and sustainability of relatively conventionally powered vehicles.One approach to the decarbonization of road vehicles is to supplement existing fossil fuels with sustainable biofuels.The present study examines the effect of a variety of gasoline/alcohol fuel blends on the performance of spark ignition engine vehicles and the potential of suitable "near to market" technology, using a combination of dynamometer measurements for a high technology downsized engine, running on a variety of fuel blends, and a detailed vehicle simulation model. Fuel consumption, and hence CO₂ emissions, results are presented for the technology and fuel combinations over a number…
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The Performance of a Modern Vehicle on a Variety of Alcohol-Gasoline Fuel Blends

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BP International Ltd-John Williams, Martin Gold, Rana Ali
Mahle Powertrain, Ltd.-Philip A. Stansfield, Andre Bisordi, Dave OudeNijeweme
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1272
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
An unmodified, conventionally fuelled, 2009 Class D vehicle with a 2.0L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine was operated on a range of gasoline, gasoline-ethanol and gasoline-butanol fuel blends over NEDC drive cycles and WOT power curves on a chassis dynamometer. Engine performance, engine management system parameters and vehicle out emissions were recorded to investigate the response of a current state-of-the-art technology vehicle to various alcohol fuel blends.The vehicle fired on all fuels and was capable of adapting its long term fuelling trim to cope with the increased fuel flow demand for alcohol fuels up to E85. Over the NEDC tests, the volumetric fuel consumption was very strongly related to the calorific content of the fuel. CO and NOx emissions were largely unaffected for the mid alcohol blends, but CO emissions decreased and NOx emissions increased significantly for the high alcohol fuels. THC emissions were largely unaffected. Particulate mass initially reduced as the alcohol content increased, but then increased significantly for the higher alcohols. This was likely due to the poor vaporisation during cold start.During the…
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The Impact of Fuel Composition on the Combustion and Emissions of a Prototype Lean-Boosted PFI Engine

BP International Ltd-John Williams, Rana Ali
BP Japan KK-Walter Bunting, Kenichi Ishiwa
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Toyota and BP have performed a collaborative study to understand the impact of fuel composition on the combustion and emissions of a prototype 1.8L lean boosted engine.The fuel matrix was designed to understand better the impact of a range of fuel properties on fundamental combustion characteristics including thermal efficiency, combustion duration, exhaust emissions and extension of lean limit. Most of the fuels in the test matrix were in the RON range of 96 - 102, although ethanol and other high octane components were used in some fuels to increase RON to the range 104 - 108. The oxygen content ranged from 2 - 28%, and constituents included biocomponents, combustion improving additives and novel blend components.Performance and emissions tests were conducted over a range of engine operating conditions. Thermal efficiency was mapped at stoichiometric and lean conditions, and the limit of lean combustion was established for different fuels.Peak thermal efficiency, which was largely governed by resistance to auto-ignition, was found to be primarily described by fuel RON.The presence of fuel borne nitrogen was shown to increase…
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