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The Impact of Saturated and Unsaturated Fuel Molecules on Diesel Combustion and Exhaust Emissions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BP Global Fuels Technology-R. Allan, M. Payne, J. Rogerson
University College London-P. Hellier, N. Ladommatos
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1922
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
Diesel fuels usually comprise a wide range of compounds having different molecular structures which can affect both the fuel's physical properties and combustion characteristics. In future, as synthetic fuels from fossil and sustainable sources become increasingly available, it could be possible to control the fuel's molecular structure to achieve clean and efficient combustion.This paper presents experimental results of combustion and emissions studies undertaken on a single cylinder diesel engine supplied with 18 different fuels each comprising a single, acyclic, non-oxygenated hydrocarbon molecule. These molecules were chosen to highlight the effect of straight carbon chain length, degree of saturation and the addition of methyl groups as branches to a straight carbon chain.The engine tests were carried out at constant injection timing and they were repeated at constant ignition timing and at constant ignition delay, the latter being achieved through the addition to the various fuels of small quantities of ignition improver (2-ethylhexyl nitrate). In tests conducted at constant injection and constant ignition timing the ignition delay of the molecule was found to be the primary driver…
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High-Speed Microscopic Imaging of the Initial Stage of Diesel Spray Formation and Primary Breakup

BP Global Fuels Technology-Martin Gold, Cassandra Higham
University of Brighton-Cyril Crua, Tenzin Shoba, Morgan Heikal
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
The formation and breakup of diesel sprays was investigated experimentally on a common rail diesel injector using a long range microscope. The objectives were to further the fundamental understanding of the processes involved in the initial stage of diesel spray formation.Tests were conducted at atmospheric conditions and on a rapid compression machine with motored in-cylinder peak pressures up to 8 MPa, and injection pressures up to 160 MPa. The light source and long range imaging optics were optimized to produce blur-free shadowgraphic images of sprays with a resolution of 0.6 μm per pixel, and a viewing region of 768x614 μm. Such fine spatial and temporal resolutions allowed the observation of previously unreported shearing instabilities and stagnation point on the tip of diesel jets. The tip of the fuel jet was seen to take the shape of an oblate spheroidal cap immediately after leaving the nozzle, due to the combination of transverse expansion of the jet and the physical properties of the fuel. The spheroidal cap was found to consist of residual fuel trapped in the…
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Impact of Biodiesel Blends on Fuel Consumption and Emissions in Euro 4 Compliant Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BP Global Fuels Technology-Cassandra Higham
Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki-Zissis Samaras, Georgios Fontaras, Maria Kalogirou
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1484
Published 2010-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) products derived from vegetable oils and animal fats are now widely used in European diesel fuels and their use will increase in order to meet mandated targets for the use of renewable products in road fuels. As more FAME enters the diesel pool, understanding the impact of higher FAME levels on the performance and emissions of modern light-duty diesel vehicles is increasingly important. Of special significance to Well-to-Wheels (WTW) calculations is the potential impact that higher FAME levels may have on the vehicle's volumetric fuel consumption.The primary objective of this study was to generate statistically robust fuel consumption data on three light-duty diesel vehicles complying with Euro 4 emissions regulations. These vehicles were evaluated on a chassis dynamometer using four fuels: a hydrocarbon-only diesel fuel and three FAME/diesel fuel blends containing up to 50% v/v FAME. One FAME type, a Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME), was used throughout. One vehicle was equipped only with an oxidation catalyst while the other two were also equipped with two types of Diesel Particulate Filters…
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A Study of Gasoline-Alcohol Blended Fuels in an Advanced Turbocharged DISI Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BP Global Fuels Technology-Martin Gold, John Rogerson, Craig Goodfellow
MAHLE Powertrain Ltd-Alasdair Cairns, Phil Stansfield, Neil Fraser, Hugh Blaxill
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0138
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
This work was concerned with evaluation of the performance and emissions of potential future biofuels during advanced spark ignition engine operation. The fuels prepared included three variants of gasoline, three gasoline-ethanol blends and a gasoline-butanol fuel altogether covering a range of oxygen mass concentrations and octane numbers to identify key influencing parameters.The combustion of the fuels was evaluated in a turbocharged multi-cylinder direct fuel injection research engine equipped with a standard three-way catalyst and an external EGR circuit that allowed use of either cooled or non-cooled EGR. The engine operating effects studied at both part and boosted high load conditions included fuel injection timing and pressure, excess air tolerance, EGR tolerance and spark retard limits. A number of blends were also mapped at suitable sites across the European drive cycle under downsized engine conditions. Relative in-vehicle fuel economies were then determined via drive cycle simulation and compared to a naturally aspirated gasoline PFI engine.
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Effect of the Molecular Structure of Individual Fatty Acid Alcohol Esters (Biodiesel) on the Formation of Nox and Particulate Matter in the Diesel Combustion Process

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BP Global Fuels Technology-Robert Allan, John Williams, John Rogerson
University College London-Alessandro Schönborn, Nicos Ladommatos
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-1578
Published 2008-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel which can be used as a direct replacement for fossil Diesel fuel as a calorific source in Diesel Engines. It consists of fatty acid mono-alkyl esters, which are produced by the trans-esterification reaction of plant oils with monohydric alcohols. The Plant oils and alcohols can both be derived from biomass, giving this fuel the potential for a sustainable carbon dioxide neutral life-cycle, which is an important quality with regard to avoiding the net emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Depending on its fatty ester composition, Biodiesel can have varying physical and chemical properties which influence its combustion behaviour in a Diesel engine. It has been observed by many researchers that Biodiesel can sometimes lead to an increase in emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) compared to fossil Diesel fuel, while emitting a lower amount of particulate mass. The work described in this paper examines the influence of the detailed molecular structure of fatty acid ester molecules on the formation of NOx and particulate matter. Several individual fatty acid alcohol esters were…
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Primary Reference Fuel Behavior in a HCCI Engine near the Low-Load Limit

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BP Global Fuels Technology-Yi Xu
Ford Research and Innovation Center-Thomas E. Kenney
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-1667
Published 2008-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In a previous study, a wide range of gasolines with RON∼90 were tested in a single cylinder engine operated in HCCI mode using negative valve overlap, and all were found to have very similar behavior near the low-load limit. Here we broaden the range of gasolines to include PRF90 and PRF60. At high engine speed, both PRF60 and PRF90 behave similarly to all the other gasolines tested. However, at 1000 RPM, PRF90 is very different from all the other gasolines: it ignites very late, and the engine cannot be operated at low load. Simulations using a popular fuel chemistry model cannot distinguish PRF60 and PRF90 under these conditions. However, a new fuel chemistry model correctly shows the onset of fuel sensitivity at low engine speed. Sensitivity analyses indicate the low-load limit at low engine speed strongly depend on both the chemistry parameters and on the heat-transfer parameters.
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Effects on diesel combustion of the molecular structure of potential synthetic bio-fuel molecules

BP Global Fuels Technology-John Williams, Robert Allan, John Rogerson
University College London-Alessandro Schönborn, Nicos Ladommatos
Published 2007-09-16 by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche in Italy
Synthetic bio-fuels, which can be obtained through the gasification of biomass into synthesis gas and the subsequent catalytic reaction of the synthesis gas into liquid fuel molecules, could play a key-role in providing a sustainable source of automotive fuels during the coming decades. This paper presents an attempt to understand the effect of molecular structure of potential oxygenated synthetic bio-fuel molecules of different structure on the diesel combustion process in both stratified and homogeneous combustion modes. Specifically, the effects of molecular structure on the energy release rates, gaseous exhaust emissions and the sub-micron particulate matter distribution were examined. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using a specially adapted common-rail fuel-system which allowed the injection of small single-molecule fuel samples at high pressure. It was found that significant differences exist in the combustion characteristics of various molecules of the same molecular weight and atomic make-up. Substantial differences in ignition characteristics as well as detailed effects of molecular structure on pollutant formation and sub-micron particulate matter were observed.
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CONCAWE/GFC Study on Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Effects on Hot and Cold Weather Driveability of Modern European Vehicles

CONCAWE-Neville Thompson, Roberto Bazzani, Theo Aarnink, Yeong Kwon, Pedro Miguel Martinez, Peter J. Zemroch
PSA Peugeot Citroen-Barry Cahill
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
A joint test programme has been carried out by CONCAWE and GFC to evaluate the impact of gasoline volatility and ethanol on the driveability performance of modern European vehicles. Eight vehicles, three with DISI fuel systems and five with MPI, were tested for hot driveability performance. After screening tests, a subset of four vehicles was selected and tested for cold driveability. The latest test procedures developed by GFC were used for both hot (20, 30 and 40°C) and cold (+5 and -10°C: representative of moderate winter conditions) weather testing on climate controlled chassis dynamometers. A matrix of four hydrocarbon test fuels at two levels of DVPE and E70 was blended for the hot weather testing, and three fuels with varying E100 but essentially parallel distillation curves for the cold weather tests. For each hydrocarbon fuel, two other fuels containing 10% ethanol were made, one splash blend and one with matched volatility. Some tests were also carried out using 5% ethanol fuels made by blending hydrocarbon and 10% ethanol fuels. The paper describes the detailed results…
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Fuel Effects on Regulated Emissions from Modern Gasoline Vehicles

BP Global Fuels Technology-Roberto Bazzani
CONCAWE-Neville Thompson
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
The influence of gasoline quality on exhaust emissions has been evaluated using four modern European gasoline cars with advanced features designed to improve fuel economy and CO2 emissions, including stoichiometric direct injection, lean direct injection and MPI with variable valve actuation.Fuel effects studied included sulphur content, evaluated over a range from 4 to 148 mg/kg, and other gasoline properties, including aromatics content, olefins content, volatility and final boiling point (FBP).All four cars achieved very low emissions levels, with some clear differences between the vehicle technologies. Even at these low emissions levels, all four cars showed very little short-term sensitivity to gasoline sulphur content. The measured effects of the other gasoline properties were small and often conflicting, with differing directional responses for different vehicles and emissions.
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