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Light weighting for Mass Transportation - A Step Towards Greener Environment

Automotive Research Association of India-Pradeep Jawale, Pankaj Nirmal
Research & Devlopment Institute-Mahesh Anand Patwardhan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1050
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Major cause of air pollution in the world is due to burning of fossil fuels for transport application; around 23% Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are produced due to transport sector. Likewise, the major cause of air pollution in Indian cities is also due to transport sector. Marginal improvement in the fuel economy and emissions per kilometer travelled significantly impacts surrounding environment. Reduction in the vehicle mass gives substantial benefit in improving fuel economy. The quantum of benefit due to lightweighting increases where there are several start and stop conditions like city buses. In view above, study has been made for Indian city buses to understand weight optimization parameters. It was found that the major weight of the bus is of it's super structure which is made of steel and has a great potential for weight reduction. Considering this aspect, work has been carried out to develop lightweight aluminium superstrutured city bus comprising of design, development and prototype manufacturing of 12m Low Entry and 12m Semi Low Floor (SLF) buses. Aluminium lightweight Bus prototypes conforms…
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Ride-Comfort Analysis for Commercial Truck Using MATLAB Simulink

Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale
ARAI Academy-Sarnab Debnath
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2428
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Ride Comfort forms a core design aspect for suspension and is to be considered as primary requirement for vehicle performance in terms of drivability and uptime of passenger. Maintaining a balance between ride comfort and handling poses a major challenge to finalize the suspension specifications. The objective of this project it to perform ride- comfort analysis for a commercial truck using MATLAB Simulink. First, benchmarking was carried out on a 4x2 commercial truck and the physical parameters were obtained. Further, a mathematical model is developed using MATLAB Simulink R2015a and acceleration- time data is collected. An experimentation was carried out on the truck at speeds of 20 kmph, 30 kmph, 40 kmph and 50 kmph over a single hump to obtain actual acceleration time domain data. The model is then correlated with actual test over a single hump. This is followed by running the vehicle on Class A, B & C road profiles to account for random vibrations. Similarly, a simulation is done on MATLAB Simulink and a correlation is established between simulated and actual…
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Impact of Wheel-Housing on Aerodynamic Drag and Effect on Energy Consumption on an Electric Bus Body

Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
ARAI Academy-Amitabh Das, Yash Jain
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2394
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Role of wheel and underbody aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing arrangements. Based on benchmarking, a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing- at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption of a bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption.
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Aerodynamic Analysis of Electric Passenger Car Using Wind Turbine Concept at Front End

Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
ARAI Academy-Snehil Mendiratta, Sugat Sharma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2396
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electric passenger car with floor battery usually have its front boot space empty and the space is used as additional luggage storage. This space can be utilized to capture the wind energy and generate electricity. Based on this, the objective of this work is to perform an aerodynamic analysis of an electric passenger car using wind turbine placed at the front. Initially the aerodynamic analysis of a basic electric car model is performed and further simulated using wind turbines and aerodynamic add-on-devices. The simulation is carried-out using ANSYS Fluent tool. Based on the simulation result, scaled down optimized model is fabricated and tested in wind tunnel for validation. The result shows reduction of drag coefficient by 5.9%.
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Aerodynamic Analysis of Race Car Using Active Wing Concept

Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
ARAI Academy-Prakash P Bhanushali
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2395
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In high speed race cars, aerodynamics is an important aspect for determining performance and stability of vehicle. It is mainly influenced by front and rear wings. Active aerodynamics consist of any type of movable wing element that change their position based on operating conditions of the vehicle to have better performance and handling. In this work, front and rear wings are designed for race car prototype of race car. The high down force aerofoil profiles have been used for design of front and rear wing. The first aerodynamic analysis has been performed on baseline model without wings using CFD tool. For investigation, parameters considered are angle of attack in the range of 0-18° for front as well as rear wing at different test speeds of 60, 80, 100 and 120 kmph. The simulation is carried out by using ANSYS Fluent. The simulation results show significant improvement in vehicle performance and handling parameters. To validate the results, a scaled model prototype is manufactured and tested in wind tunnel.
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Aerodynamic Analysis of a Passenger Car to Reduce Drag Using Active Grill Shutter and Active Air Dam

Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
ARAI Academy-Raghav Tandon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2408
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Active aerodynamics can be defined as the concept of reducing drag by making real-time changes to certain devices such that it modifies the airflow around a vehicle. Using such devices also have the added advantages of improving ergonomics and performance along with aesthetics. A significant reduction in fuel consumption can also be seen when using such devices. The objective of this work is to reduce drag acting on a passenger car using the concept of active aerodynamics with grill shutters and air dams. First, analysis has been carried out on a baseline passenger car and further simulated using active grill shutters and air dams for vehicle speed ranging from 60 kmph to 120 kmph, with each active device open from 0° to 90°. The optimized model is then validated for a scaled down prototype in a wind tunnel at 80kmph. Vehicle has been modelled using SolidWorks tool and the simulation has been carried out using ANSYS Fluent. The result shows a significant drag reduction of 12.23% using active grill shutters and air dams.
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Design and Optimization of Crash-Box of Passenger Vehicle to Enhance Energy Absorption

Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq B. Agrewale, K.C. Vora
ARAI Academy-Shreyas Sarage
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
Frontal crash is the most common type of accidents in passenger vehicles which results in severe injuries or fatalities. During frontal crash, some frontal vehicle body has plastic deformation and absorbs impact energy. Hence vehicle crashworthiness is important consideration for safety aspect. The crash box is one of the most important parts in vehicle frontal structure assembly which absorb crash energy during impact. In case of frontal crash accident, crash box is expected to be collapsed by absorbing crash energy prior to the other parts so that the damage to the main cabin frame and occupant injury can be minimized. The main objective of this work is to design and optimize the crash box of passenger vehicle to enhance energy absorption. The modeling of the crash box is done in CATIA V5 and simulations are carried out by using ANSYS. The results show significant improvement in the energy absorption with new design of the crash box and it is validated experimentally on UTM. Further numerical analysis of bumper beam assembly is performed with consideration of…
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Design and Development of a Retrofit Solution for Converting a Conventional LCV into Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Automotive Research Association of India-Ravindra Kumar, Ashwin Subramanian Kaundinya, Ravindra Shah, Swapnil Ghugal, Jyoti Ganesh Kale, Vivek Thorat, Saroj Barik, Sanket Shinde
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In today’s scenario, the emission norms are getting stringent day by day due to an increased level of pollution. The world is shifting towards low carbon footprint which made it necessary to adopt efficient technologies with fewer emissions. The hybridization of vehicles has resulted in improved efficiency with lower emissions which can fulfil the near future emission norms. Retrofitting of hybrid components into a conventional IC engine vehicle is so far the best way to achieve better performance both economically and technologically. This research is primarily focused on the design and development of a novel retrofit solution of P3x architecture for the light commercial vehicle. This retrofit solution is different from other hybrid solutions in terms of powertrain. It contains an innovative add-on powertrain along with the existing powertrain. This additional powertrain consists of a pair of helical gears followed by a chain and sprocket as a coupler for traction motor. The newly designed powertrain provides 5 different hybrid modes namely engine only mode, electric only mode, motor assist mode, battery charging mode and regenerative…
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Simulation Based Design and Development of Test Track for ADAS Functions Validation and Verification with Respect to Indian Scenario

Automotive Research Association of India-Jyoti Ganesh Kale, Anand Subramaniam, Manish Laxman Karle, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicles perform various functions with their own control strategies. Functions like Lane Departure Warning (LDW), Lane Keeping system (LKS) and Forward Collision Warning System (FCWS) requires special test tracks for their verification and validation. These test track requirements change with region to region according to available infrastructure.This paper deals with the design and development of test tracks for different ADAS functions verification and validation of Indian specific scenarios and its simulation in IPG CarMaker. The test track conceptualization has been done through the understanding and study of different international standards and geometry of test tracks for Indian conditions have been developed. IPG CarMaker software tool is used for creation of test track, and same track is used for simulation of above ADAS functions in IPG CarMaker. It is used as a scenario editor which can also simulate ECU and respond to sensor inputs dynamically which is not possible with other simulation environments. It creates a repeatable test scenario for particular function. IPG CarMaker is used to generate the required test track conditions in animated…
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Aerodynamic Analysis of Passenger Car with Luggage Carrier (Roof Rack)

Pranav Anil Hol
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Any change is vehicle exterior design, affects the aerodynamics characteristic. Generally different types of roof racks are attached on passenger vehicles to carry luggage which affects aerodynamic drag. The objective of this work is to perform aerodynamic analysis of ground vehicle with roof rack to investigate the change in drag coefficient. First, the aerodynamic analysis of a baseline passenger car model is performed with and without generic benchmarked roof rack at 100 kmph. Further analysis is carried out with different new designs of roof racks. Based on simulation result, a scaled down prototype model is fabricated and validated by using a wind tunnel test for optimum suitable case. The modelling of the vehicle is done in CATIA tool and simulation is carried out by using ANSYS Fluent. The results show maximum drag reduction of around 9% with new design of roof rack as compared to the benchmarked roof rack which improves the fuel economy around 18% when compared to a benchmarked roof rack.
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