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Eco-Driving Strategies for Different Powertrain Types and Scenarios

Argonne National Laboratory-Simeon Iliev, Eric Rask, Kevin Stutenberg, Michael Duoba
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2608
To be published on 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
Connected automated vehicles (CAVs) are quickly becoming a reality, and their potential ability to communicate with each other and the infrastructure around them has big potential impacts on future mobility systems. Perhaps one of the most important impacts could be on network wide energy consumption. A lot of research has already been performed on the topic of eco-driving and the potential fuel and energy consumption benefits for CAVs. However, most of the efforts to date have been based on simulation studies only, and have only considered conventional vehicle powertrains. In this study, experimental data is presented for the potential eco-driving benefits of two specific intersection approach scenarios and four different powertrain types. The two intersection approach scenarios considered in this study include an approach to a red light where coming to a complete stop is avoidable and one where a complete stop is determined necessary thanks to advance information from vehicle to infrastructure communication (V2I). The four powertrain types tested in this study include an advanced conventional vehicle, a conventional vehicle with idle stop-start capability,…
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Zero-Dimensional Heat Release Modeling Framework for Gasoline Compression-Ignition Engines with Multiple Injection Events

Argonne National Laboratory-Buyu Wang, Thomas Wallner
Illinois Institute of Technology-Michael Pamminger, Carrie Hall
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
A zero-dimensional heat release model was developed for compression ignition engines. This type of model can be utilized for parametric studies, off-line optimization to reduce experimental efforts as well as model-based control strategies. In this particular case, the combustion model, in a simpler form, will be used in future efforts to control the combustion in compression ignition engines operating on gasoline-like fuels. To allow for a realistic representation of the in-cylinder combustion process, a spray model has been employed to allow for the quantification of fuel distribution as well as turbulent kinetic energy within the injection spray. The combustion model framework is capable of reflecting premixed as well as mixing controlled combustion. Fuel is assigned to various combustion events based on the air-fuel mixture within the spray. The mixing controlled combustion consists of two separate combustion events; one occurring within the fuel spray, which is characterized by rich fuel mixtures with a substantial level of turbulent kinetic energy and high combustion rates; the other one describes moderate combustion rates of lean fuel mixtures with less…
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Exploration of Cavitation-Suppressing Orifice Designs for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Injector Operating with Straight-Run Gasoline

Argonne National Laboratory-Roberto Torelli, Gina M. Magnotti, Sibendu Som
Aramco Research Center - Detroit-Yuanjiang Pei, Michael L. Traver
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The occurrence of cavitation inside injectors is generally undesirable since it can cause material erosion and result in deviations from the expected injector performance. Previous numerical work employing an injector geometry measured with x-ray diagnostics and operating with a high-volatility straight-run gasoline (SRG) has shown that: (1) most of the cavitation is generally observed at low needle lifts, (2) needle motion is responsible for asymmetric structures in the internal flow as well as large pressure and velocity gradients that trigger phase transition at the orifice inlets, and (3) cavitation affects the injector discharge coefficient and distribution of injected fuel. To explore the potential for material damage within the injector orifices due to cavitation cloud collapse, the cavitation-induced erosion risk assessment (CIERA) tool has been applied for the first time to the realistic geometry of a heavy-duty injector using the CONVERGE software. Predictions from a large eddy simulation indicated critical locations with high erosive potential in specific injector orifices. These locations matched qualitatively well with x-ray scans of an eroded injector sample that underwent a durability…
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On-Track Measurement of Road Load Changes in Two Close-Following Vehicles: Methods and Results

Argonne National Laboratory-Michael Duoba, Alejandro Fernandez Canosa
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As emerging automated vehicle technology is making advances in safety and reliability, engineers are also exploring improvements in energy efficiency with this new paradigm. Powertrain efficiency receives due attention, but also impactful is finding ways to reduce driving losses in coordinated-driving scenarios. Efforts focused on simulation to quantify road load improvements require a sufficient amount of background validation work to support them. This study uses a practical approach to directly quantify road load changes by testing the coordinated driving of two vehicles on a test track at various speeds (64, 88, 113 km/h) and vehicle time gaps (0.3 to 1.3 s). Axle torque sensors were used to directly measure the load required to maintain steady-state speeds while following a lead vehicle at various gap distances. Through trial and error, test methods were developed that appear to provide satisfactory results, considering the challenges of track testing under real-world conditions (wind, weather, temperature changes, etc.). We found that total road load was reduced by about 10-12% at an optimum gap time of 0.25 to 0.4 s. Challenges…
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Influence of Turbulence and Thermophysical Fluid Properties on Cavitation Erosion Predictions in Channel Flow Geometries

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Argonne National Laboratory-Gina M. Magnotti, Sibendu Som
Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-Kaushik Saha
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0290
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Cavitation and cavitation-induced erosion have been observed in fuel injectors in regions of high acceleration and low pressure. Although these phenomena can have a large influence on the performance and lifetime of injector hardware, questions still remain on how these physics should be accurately and efficiently represented within a computational fluid dynamics model. While several studies have focused on the validation of cavitation predictions within canonical and realistic injector geometries, it is not well documented what influence the numerical and physical parameters selected to represent turbulence and phase change will have on the predictions for cavitation erosion propensity and severity.In this work, a range of numerical and physical parameters are evaluated within the mixture modeling approach in CONVERGE to understand their influence on predictions of cavitation, condensation and erosion. Particular attention is paid to grid resolution, turbulence model and near-wall treatment, fuel surrogate properties, and non-condensable gas content. Assessment of cavitation predictions are conducted through comparison of measured and predicted mass flow rates and cavitation probability distributions for flow through a channel with a sharp…
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Effects of Lambda on Knocking Characteristics and RON Rating

Argonne National Laboratory-Alexander Hoth, Jorge Pulpeiro Gonzalez, Christopher P. Kolodziej, Toby Rockstroh
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The knock resistance of fuels has been historically measured using the ASTM RON and MON methods. However, significant discrepancies between the fuel octane number and knock-limited performance in modern spark-ignited (SI) engines have been well-documented. Differences between the operating conditions of the Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine during RON rating and those attained in modern SI engines have been highlighted in the literature. While octane ratings are performed for each fuel on the CFR engine at the lambda that provides the highest knockmeter reading, modern SI engines are generally operated at stoichiometry and knock intensity is based on the high frequency cylinder pressure oscillations associated with knocking combustion. In the present work, an instrumented CFR engine was used to analyze lambda effects on both the conventional knockmeter RON rating method and cylinder pressure transducer based knock intensity. It was found that both knock intensity metrics reduced significantly at stoichiometry for highly iso-paraffinic fuels (such as primary reference fuels), compared to test fuels composed of higher ethanol or aromatic content. This behavior had a significant impact…
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Optimizing Thermal Efficiency of a Multi-Cylinder Heavy Duty Engine with E85 Gasoline Compression Ignition

Argonne National Laboratory-Buyu Wang, Thomas Wallner
Illinois Institute of Technology-Michael Pamminger
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) using a single gasoline-type fuel for direct/port injection has been shown as a method to achieve low-temperature combustion with low engine-out NOx and soot emissions and high indicated thermal efficiency. However, key technical barriers to achieving low temperature combustion on multi-cylinder engines include the air handling system (limited amount of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)) as well as mechanical engine limitations (e.g. peak pressure rise rate). In light of these limitations, high temperature combustion with reduced amounts of EGR appears more practical. Previous studies with 93 AKI gasoline demonstrated that the port and direct injection strategy exhibited the best performance, but the premature combustion event prevented further increase in the premixed gasoline fraction and efficiency. In this work, experimental testing was conducted on a 12.4 L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine operating with high temperature GCI combustion using E85 gasoline. The impact on engine performance and emissions was evaluated at an engine speed of 1038 rpm and brake mean effective pressure of 14 bar with port and direct injection strategy. Compared to previous…
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Analysis and Model Validation of the Toyota Prius Prime

Argonne National Laboratory-Jongryeol Jeong, Namdoo Kim, Kevin Stutenberg, Aymeric Rousseau
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Toyota Prius Prime is a new generation of Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, the electric drive range of which is 25 miles. This version is improved from the previous version by the addition of a one-way clutch between the engine and the planetary gear-set, which enables the generator to add electric propulsive force. The vehicle was analyzed, developed and validated based on test data from Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility, where chassis dynamometer set temperature can be controlled in a thermal chamber. First, we analyzed and developed components such as engine, battery, motors, wheels and chassis, including thermal aspects based on test data. By developing models considering thermal aspects, it is possible to simulate the vehicle driving not only in normal temperatures but also in hot, cold, or warmed-up conditions. Next, we analyzed supervisory vehicle control to merge the separately developed vehicle component models in a vehicle simulation model. The supervisory vehicle control includes engine on/off, battery energy management, engine operating conditions, and so on. In particular, we analyzed the control…
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Durability Study of a High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using Lubricity Additive Dosed Gasoline-Like Fuel - Additional Cycle Runtime and Teardown Analysis

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Argonne National Laboratory-Katarzyna Matusik, Brandon Sforzo, Alan Kastengren, Christopher Powell
Aramco Research Center - Detroit-Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Vincent Costanzo
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0263
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This study is a continuation of previous work assessing the robustness of a Cummins XPI common rail injection system operating with gasoline-like fuel. All the hardware from the original study was retained except for the high pressure pump head and check valves which were replaced due to cavitation damage. An additional 400 hour NATO cycle was run on the refurbished fuel system to achieve a total exposure time of 800 hours and detect any other significant failure modes. As in the initial investigation, fuel system parameters including pressures, temperatures and flow rates were logged on a test bench to monitor performance over time. Fuel and lubricant samples were taken every 50 hours to assess fuel consistency, metallic wear, and interaction between fuel and oil. High fidelity driving torque and flow measurements were made to compare overall system performance when operating with both diesel and light distillate fuel. Injector rate shapes were measured as a function of time, and high resolution x-ray imaging of the nozzle tips was performed as part of the final teardown analysis.…
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Understanding Fuel Stratification Effects on Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) Combustion and Emissions Behaviors

Argonne National Laboratory-Le Zhao, Muhsin Ameen
Aramco Research Center-Kukwon Cho, Yu Zhang, Yuanjiang Pei
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Fuel stratification effects on the combustion and emissions behaviors for partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion of a high reactivity gasoline (research octane number of 80) was investigated using the third generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen3 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The PPCI combustion mode was achieved through a double injection strategy. The extent of in-cylinder fuel stratification was tailored by varying the start of second fuel injection timing (SOIsecond) while the first fuel injection event was held constant and occurred during the intake stroke. Based on the experimental results, three combustion characteristic zones were identified in terms of the SOIsecond - CA50 (crank angle at 50% cumulative heat release) relationship: (I) no response zone (HCCI-like combustion); (II) negative CA50 slope zone: (early PPCI mode); and (III) positive CA50 slope zone (late PPCI mode). Across the three zones, Zone II produced the best overall performance. In addition, a wider spray inclusion angle (130° vs. 100°) was found to allow for more retarded SOIsecond, thereby resulting in stronger fuel stratification and enhanced control authority over CA50. Finally,…
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