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Heartbeat Detection Technology for Monitoring Driver’s Physical Condition

Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd.-Kento Tsuchiya, Kenta Mochizuki
Keio University-Tomoaki Ohtsuki, Kohei Yamamoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1212
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, the number of reported traffic accidents due to sudden deterioration in driver’s physical condition has been increasing, it is expected to develop a system that prevents accidents even if physical condition suddenly changes while driving, or reduces damage through vehicle body control. For this purpose, it is necessary to detect sudden changes of the driver’s physical condition, and research is being conducted widely. Among them, it is reported that some of such changes may appear in the heartbeat interval. In other words, by acquiring the driver’s heartbeat interval in real time, it may be possible to detect the sudden changes, and reduce traffic accident. Even if a traffic accident occurs, the damage can be reduced by emergency evacuation immediately after detecting sudden changes. Therefore, we focused on the technology to detect the heartbeat interval with 24GHz microwave Doppler radar, which can detect heartbeat non-contactly while maintaining the interior design and passenger’s privacy. Doppler radar with microwave is sensitive enough to detect heartbeat, however vibration noise is also superimposed on the sensor signal…
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Model-Based Development Design for a Continuously Variable Discharge Oil Pump Design

Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd.-Shogo Iwasaki, Koji Nunami, Masahiro Yoshida, Tatsuya Masuhisa, Shotaro Kondo
Toyota Central R&D Labs Inc.-Takanori Abekura, Hiroyuki Nishizawa
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Recently, for protection of the environment, the regulation of automobile fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission has been strengthened. In light of such circumstances, automobile parts are generally required to be able to improve fuel efficiency and reduce exhaust gas emission.In order to meet such requirements, the structure of fuel/exhaust-related devices has become complicated. Redesigns of future products that will be increasingly complex will lengthen the development period and reduce cost efficiency seriously. However, since it has been difficult to find, the best design parameters that satisfy the following two important design elements, we have been forced to meet requirements by redesign of the oil pump. iSize of oil pressure change (when this is variable)iiSpeed of change of oil pressure in response to variable control operationIn order to meet such requirements more easily, we commenced construction of an original one dimensional (1D) Model-Based Development (MBD) tool to carry out unsteady calculation in our design process. As a result, we further were able to configure an original MBD tool that can solve nonlinear stiff ordinary differential…
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Development of Continuously Variable Discharge Oil Pump

Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd.-Yuki Nishida, Fumihiko Toyoda, Hirohito Terashima, Hisashi Ono, Koji nunami
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Recently, for the protection of the environment, the regulation of automobile fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission has been strengthened. To improve fuel economy, it is demanded that each engine part contributes to reducing the workload of the engine, even the engine lubrication oil pump. In response to this, a new variable discharge oil pump was developed. It is the world's first internal gear type oil pump that has electronically controlled continuously variable discharge. The work performed by the pump chiefly takes two forms: sliding friction of the rotor and pumping work which moves the oil. First, in developing a variable discharge oil pump, a new tooth profile of the rotor was developed to reduce its sliding friction. As a result, the sliding friction of the rotor was reduced by 34% while maintaining the same theoretical oil discharge rate. Next, a variable discharge mechanism using an internal gear was developed. Since it is an internal gear pump, the flow rate can be controlled by changing the eccentric direction of the rotor relative to the ports…
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Development of Engine Lubrication System with New Internal Gear Fully Variable Discharge Oil Pump

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd.-Yuki Nishida
Toyota Motor Corporation-Michitaka Yamamoto, Takayuki Hosogi, Tetsuji Watanabe
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2431
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Over the past decades, the automotive industry has made significant efforts to improve engine fuel economy by reducing mechanical friction. Reducing friction under cold conditions is becoming more important in hybrid vehicle (HV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) systems due to the lower oil temperatures of these systems, which results in higher friction loss. To help resolve this issue, a new internal gear fully variable discharge oil pump (F-VDOP) was developed. This new oil pump can control the oil pressure freely over a temperature range from -10°C to hot conditions. At 20°C, this pump lowers the minimum main gallery pressure to 100 kPa, thereby achieving a friction reduction effect of 1.4 Nm. The developed oil pump achieves a pressure response time constant of 0.17 seconds when changing the oil pressure from 120 kPa to 200 kPa at a temperature of 20°C and an engine speed of 1,600 rpm. Test results confirmed that the developed oil pump controlled the oil pressure with an undershoot of about 12%. The oil jets were also stopped from -10°C. The…
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A Basic Study of a Driver's Gaze Area Detection System

Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd.-Shunsuke Kogure, Takashi Kato, Shin Osuga
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
With the improved safety performance of vehicles, the number of accidents has been decreasing. However, accidents due to driver distraction still occur, which means that there is a high need to determine whether a driver is properly looking at the surroundings. Meanwhile, with the trend toward partial automatic driving of vehicles in recent years, it is also urgently required that the state of the driver be grasped. Even if automatic driving is not installed, it is desired that the state of the driver be grasped and an application for control be performed depending on the state of the driver. Under these circumstances, we have built an algorithm that determines of the direction a driver is looking, to make a basic determination of whether or not the driver is in a state suitable for safe driving of the vehicle. In this algorithm, it is determined whether or not a driver is facing forward by using information such as face and viewing direction angles calculated from images from a grayscale camera installed on the steering column. Here,…
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Technology to Balance Discharge Pressure Characteristics with Hydraulic Vibration Control for a Variable Discharge Oil Pump

Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd.-Kenichi Higuchi, Fumihiko Toyoda, Hirohito Terashima, Shinji Ikeda
Kyushu Institute of Technology-Eitaku Nobuyama
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
1There are two design challenges of the flow path switching valve in a three-stage variable discharge oil pump. The first is to obtain the required discharge pressure characteristics and the other is to prevent hydraulic vibration. Therefore, we established technologies to determine the shape of the valve and the valve housing that resolve these two challenges.The technology to obtain the required discharge pressure characteristics solves equations that are statically true, such as the equations for the equilibrium of forces and hydraulic orifice. The hydraulic vibration control technology derives a differential equation that takes transient behavior, including oil elasticity and inertia, into account first. Then, the derived equations are converted to a transfer function that indicates the valve behavior according to the input of oil pressure changes. And then the stability criterion is applied to judge whether hydraulic vibration occurs or not.By combining these technologies and an optimization technology, the shape of the valve and the valve housing that realizes the downsizing idea was determined.
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Control for a Comfortable Ride in Reverse Driving with an Automated Parking System

Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd.-Tatsuya Yoshikawa, Aoyagi Takahiko, Hiroshi Ishiguro
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
In a system with which acceleration and braking by the driver are automated, a gap against the system can be felt when the timing of acceleration or deceleration is different from that intended by the driver or the extent of acceleration or deceleration exceeds an acceptable limit. For an automated system, it is important to realize a control that provides comfort and a sense of security for the driver. This paper is related to the technology that secures the ride comfort felt by the driver (comfort and a sense of security) within an appropriate range and presents a discussion of the technological means to improve the ride comfort from a viewpoint particularly related to longitudinal direction.
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Development of Compact Electric Rear-Drive Unit

Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd.-Yasuaki Tahara, Kazumi Ogawa, Noriaki Nonaka, Tsuyoshi Kimura
Aisin AI Co., Ltd.-Souichirou Hattori
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
We have developed an electric rear-drive unit to enable all-wheel drive (AWD) applications to the compact FF hybrid passenger vehicles. The development is intended to provide a compact and low cost unit with low fuel consumption. The unit newly introduces a two-axis gear train that enables a compact design, an induction motor and an ATF (automatic transmission fluid) stirring resistance restraining structure that contribute to lower fuel consumption. This paper presents the features and performance of the electric rear-drive unit.
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Pedestrian Space Mobility and Safety Technology

Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd.-Hirotoshi Ochiai, Mitsuhiro Ando
Chiba Institute of Technology-Takashi Kodachi, Masaharu Shimizu, Hideaki Yamato, Kengo Toda, Takayuki Furuta
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Our society is faced with the serious problems such as aging population growth, environmental pollution and limited energy resource issues. As a means to address these issues, we are developing new mobility vehicles designed to support short-distance trips in urban settings. These mobility vehicles are intended for use in pedestrian areas inside buildings as well as outside, including public roads. In order to ensure safe and convenient operation for both pedestrians and mobility users, we conducted a risk assessment of mobility vehicles in pedestrian areas, and then developed a feature to autonomously limit the speed according to their surrounding conditions. This report discusses the utility of these mobility vehicles with the safety functions based on the fully conducted risk assessment, collision test and performance evaluation in public roads.
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Development of the All-Surface Plated Smart Handle Through In-Vapor Deposition Technology

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd.-Takashi Hara, Masaki Kato
Aisin Seiki Co., Litd-Kazuki Mizutani
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0543
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
There are such outside door handles called smart handles which have a transmitting antenna, a lock/unlock sensor, and a sensor detection circuit, with which operation of door lock is possible just by "touching" the electrostatic-capacitance type sensor of the handles.As the design of the outside handles, body color painting and Cr plating are adopted. However, if plating is applied over the entire surface of a smart handle, electromagnetic waves transmitted from the antenna will be blocked since plating material is electrically conductive. In addition to this, touching a part other than the sensor may change the electrostatic-capacitance of the sensor, which results in unwanted functioning of the lock/unlock sensor. Because of this, only part of the handle, which does not hinder the transmission of electromagnetic waves and does not cause unwanted functioning, is covered by plating, that is called, "Partially plated specifications" (Figure 1).Figure 1Mechanism of unwanted functioningHowever, there is a strong demand for plating of the entire surface in Asia and North America, and we are receiving such requests from our customers.
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