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Engine Oil Fuel Economy: Benefits and Potential Debits of Low Viscosity Engine Oil

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Afton Chemical Corporation-William B. Anderson, Greg H. Guinther
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-2241
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
There has been a trend in the automotive industry toward the use of lower viscosity engine oils as fuel economy requirements become more demanding across the globe. Lower viscosity fluids may improve fuel economy due to their improved pumpability, lower churning losses, and thinner lubricating films. However, there is one important caveat related to the use of these fluids: the amount of improvement, if any, is hardware design and application dependent. Standard industry fuel economy tests and engines with differing designs may show divergent responses when using lower viscosity engine oils, not always showing an improved fuel economy response. This paper summarizes the work conducted by the authors to demonstrate how and why the inconsistent results in fuel economy can occur with low viscosity oils.
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Prediction of Friction Durability in Off-Road Applications Based on Mechanistic Understanding of the Effects of Fluids and Surfaces on Clutch Friction

Afton Chemical Corporation-Mark Devlin, Atanu Adhvaryu
Komatsu Ltd.-Shinpei Kariwa, Toshiharu Abekawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2339
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
After new transmission lubricants are developed there is an extensive validation program where friction durability testing is performed on multiple clutch materials. Each durability test can run for long terms and the entire validation program can take much longer terms. A well designed lubricant and friction material will deliver the necessary friction control for construction equipment to operate at optimum level. A mechanistic construct has been evaluated to calculate friction durability in clutch systems based on fluid and surface tribological properties. Fluid properties include both boundary frictional and rheological effects. Surface properties include elastic modulus, surface roughness, asperity density and asperity tip radius. Using this mechanistic construct friction durability has been predicted. In the past, researchers in the field have often associated lubricant induced glazing of the friction material surface as the cause of the loss of friction control in clutch systems. In the current study, results show that wear is also a dominant cause of friction loss. In short clutch friction tests the rate of change in surface properties and fluid properties have been…
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Functional Olefin Copolymers for Low Viscosity Energy Efficiency HDEO and PCMO

Afton Chemical Corporation-Carranza A., Jiang S., Devlin M. T., Sheldon B., Hux K., Walker C., Wyatt W.
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2201
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
There is still a need in the industry for engine oils that have low viscosities to improve vehicle fuel efficiency but also protect engines from wear. Viscosity modifiers (VMs) are chief additives responsible for adjusting the viscometric characteristics of automotive lubricants. Most notably, VMs have a significant impact on a lubricant's viscosity-temperature relationship as indicated by viscosity index (VI), cold cranking simulator (CCS) viscosity, and high temperature high shear (HTHS) viscosity of engine oils. Functional copolymers bearing branched, linear, or anti-wear functionalities have been synthesized and evaluated for viscometric and wear protection performance. The resulting polymers improved tribofilm formation, shear stability and CCS viscosities. Indirect benefits including Noack improvement and trim oil reduction were observed.
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The Effect of Friction Modifiers and DI Package on Friction Reduction Potential of Next Generation Engine Oils: Part I Fresh Oils

Afton Chemical Corporation-William Lam, Mark Devlin
Ford Motor Company-Zhiqiang Liu, Arup Gangopadhyay
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Friction reduction in lubricated components through engine oil formulations has been investigated in the present work. Three different DI packages in combination with one friction modifier were blended in SAE 5 W-20 and SAE 0 W-16 viscosity grades. The friction performance of these oils was compared with GF-5 SAE 5 W-20 oil. A motored cranktrain assembly has been used to evaluate these, in which friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) as a function of engine speeds at different lubricant temperatures is measured. Results show that the choice of DI package plays a significant role in friction reduction. Results obtained from the mini-traction machine (MTM2) provide detailed information on traction coefficient in boundary, mixed and elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication regimes. It has been shown that the results from the cranktrain rig are fairly consistent with those found in MTM2 tests for all the lubricants tested. Analytical studies suggest that the traction coefficient increase in mixed lubrication regime is associated with the lubricant starvation due to the tribofilm formation. Oil film thicknesses have been measured as a function of rolling speeds at…
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Effect of Metallurgy on the Formation of Tribofilms and Wear Prevention

Afton Chemical Corporation-Mark Devlin, Jeffrey Guevremont, Chip Hewette, Marc Ingram, Grant Pollard, William Wyatt
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Different mechanical components in a vehicle can be made from different steel alloys with various surface treatments or coatings. Lubricant technology is needed to prevent wear and control friction on all of these different surfaces. Phosphorus compounds are the key additives that are used to control wear and they do this by forming tribofilms on surfaces. It has been shown that different operating conditions (pressures and sliding conditions) can influence the formation of tribofilms formed by different anti-wear additives. The effect of surface metallurgy and morphology on tribofilm formation is described in this paper. Our results show that additive technology can form proper tribofilms on various surfaces and the right combination of additives can be found for current and future surfaces.
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Engine Oil Components Effects on Turbocharger Protection and the Relevance of the TEOST 33C Test for Gasoline Turbocharger Deposit Protection

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Afton Chemical Corporation-Kongsheng Yang, Kristin A. Fletcher, Jeremy P. Styer, William Y. Lam, Gregory H. Guinther
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2341
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Countries from every region in the world have set aggressive fuel economy targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To meet these requirements, automakers are using combinations of technologies throughout the vehicle drivetrain to improve efficiency. One of the most efficient types of gasoline engine technologies is the turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine. The market share of TGDI engines within North America and globally has been steadily increasing since 2008. TGDI engines can operate at higher temperature and under higher loads. As a result, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have introduced additional engine tests to regional and OEM engine oil specifications to ensure performance of TGDI engines is maintained. One such engine test, the General Motors turbocharger coking (GMTC) test (originally referred to as the GM Turbo Charger Deposit Test), evaluates the potential of engine oil to protect turbochargers from deposit build-up. In this paper, the authors discuss the impact of typical engine oil components on GMTC performance. Concern about turbocharger deposits is not a new phenomenon, however. In the early 1990s the TEOST 33C bench…
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Advanced Lubrication - Enabling and Protecting Turbocharged, Direct Injection Gasoline Engines for Optimum Efficiency

Afton Chemical Corporation-Kongsheng Yang, Kristin A. Fletcher, Jeremy P. Styer, William Y. Lam, Gregory H. Guinther
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
There has been a global technology convergence by engine manufacturers as they strive to meet or exceed the ever-increasing fuel economy mandates that are intended to mitigate the trend in global warming associated with CO2 emissions. While turbocharging and direct-injection gasoline technologies are not new, when combined they create the opportunity for substantial increase in power output at lower engine speeds. Higher output at lower engine speeds is inherently more efficient, and this leads engine designers in the direction of overall smaller engines. Lubricants optimized for older engines may not have the expected level of durability with more operating time being spent at higher specific output levels. Additionally, a phenomenon that is called low-speed pre-ignition has become more prevalent with these engines. While more pre-ignition may be expected with highly-boosted engines, an especially destructive version of this has been found to be related to some of the essential compounds that comprise the lubricant additive package. Newly introduced OEM specifications have been designed to anticipate the needs of these downsized, down-speeded, turbocharged direct injection engines. New…
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Engine Oil Additive Impacts on Low Speed Pre-Ignition

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Afton Chemical Corporation-Kristin A. Fletcher, Lisa Dingwell, Kongsheng Yang, William Y. Lam, Jeremy P. Styer
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2277
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) is an undesirable combustion phenomenon that limits the fuel economy, drivability, emissions and durability performance of modern turbocharged engines. Because of the potential to catastrophically damage an engine after only a single pre-ignition event, the ability to reduce LSPI frequency has grown in importance over the last several years. This is evident in the significant increase in industry publications. It became apparent that certain engine oil components impact the frequency of LSPI events when evaluated in engine tests, notably calcium detergent, molybdenum and phosphorus. However, a close examination of the impact of other formulation additives is lacking. A systematic evaluation of the impact of the detergent package, including single-metal and bimetal detergent systems, ashless and ash-containing additives has been undertaken using a GM 2.0L Ecotec engine installed on a conventional engine dynamometer test stand. Consistent with previous reports, the detergent system was found to have the largest impact on LSPI frequency. Furthermore, once a balanced detergent system was identified and its LSPI impact was minimized, the effect of other additives, ash-containing…
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Effect of Lubricant Oil Properties on the Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Afton Chemical Corporation-Huifang Shao, William Lam, Joseph Remias, Joseph Roos
Argonne National Laboratory-Seungmok Choi, HeeJe Seong
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2287
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Mobile source emissions standards are becoming more stringent and particulate emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines represent a particular challenge. Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is deemed as one possible technical solution for particulate emissions reduction. In this work, a study was conducted on eight formulations of lubricants to determine their effect on GDI engine particulate emissions and GPF performance. Accelerated ash loading tests were conducted on a 2.4L GDI engine with engine oil injection in gasoline fuel by 2%. The matrix of eight formulations was designed with changing levels of sulfated ash (SASH) level, Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP) level and detergent type. Comprehensive evaluations of particulates included mass, number, size distribution, composition, morphology and soot oxidation properties. GPF performance was assessed through filtration efficiency, back pressure and morphology. It was determined that oil formulation affects the particulate emission characteristics and subsequent GPF performance.
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Effect of Fluid Flow through Clutch Material on Torque Fluctuations in Clutches

Afton Chemical Corporation-Mark Devlin, Darryl Williams, Michael Glasgow, Karen Hux, Aaron Whitworth
Miami University-Timothy Cameron
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Improving vehicle fuel efficiency is a key market driver in the automotive industry. Typically lubricant chemists focus on reducing viscosity and friction to reduce parasitic energy losses in order to improve automotive fuel efficiency. However, in a transmission other factors may be more important. If an engine can operate at high torque levels the conversion of chemical energy in the fuel to mechanical energy is dramatically increased. However high torque levels in transmissions may cause NVH to occur. The proper combination of friction material and fluid can be used to address this issue. Friction in clutches is controlled by asperity friction and hydrodynamic friction. Asperity friction can be controlled with friction modifiers in the ATF. Hydrodynamic friction control is more complex because it involves the flow characteristics of friction materials and complex viscosity properties of the fluid. This paper shows how NVH and torque capacity can be controlled by optimizing the flow characteristics of friction materials and the complex viscosity of fluids.
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