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Acoustics and Drivability as the Main Drivers for Customer Satisfaction for electrified 2-Wheeler

AVL List GmbH, Austria-Christian Hubmann, Patrick Falk, Bernhard Graf, Hubert Friedl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0525
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Along with the global trend for electrification, also motorcycle industry is entering new spheres of highly advanced products and is increasing customer demands for electric mobility. Beside hard facts such as performance, driving range, durability and ease of use, also the brand specific attributes such as styling, driveability and even sound for electrified 2-wheeler are very emotional, unique selling prepositions. To determine the subjective parameters for driveability and acoustics, AVL has developed dedicated tools and methods to quantify these attributes with high maturity.In terms of acoustics and NVH there are several crucial noise sources within electrified powertrains, which have to be treated with high attention from the initial development phase to avoid any kind of unforeseen annoyances: E-motor with inverter, transmission and secondary drive are most relevant. This issue becomes even more important with the ongoing market trend of products featuring increased power.Electrified motorcycles commonly are expected to offer supreme acceleration performance, but even this attribute may lead into driver's disappointment if throttle response and overall vehicle driveability parameters are inhomogeneous. The driveability and the…
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Influence of Inflow Boundary Conditions on High-Pressure Fuel Injection: Assessment Based on LES Approach

SAE International Journal of Engines

AVL List GmbH, Austria-Klaus Pachler, Marco Cristofaro
AVL List GmbH, Austria Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany-Amir Žilić
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0009
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
The Engine Combustion Network case Spray A with a high-pressure fuel injection is at typical operating conditions of Diesel engines. Detailed pieces of information on this experiment are available, which supports a high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with real fluid thermodynamics. An internal injector flow simulation with the needle movement measured during the experiments is used to provide a realistic boundary condition for the fuel spray simulation. Two spray simulations have been conducted: one with a constant velocity profile and one with the velocity distribution obtained from a separate injector internal flow simulation. Peculiar emphasis is placed on the velocity and turbulence distribution to quantify the influence of spray inlet boundary conditions. The fuel injection is modeled with a single-phase approach applying adequate resolution to capture phase boundaries. Observations from simulation results indicate a significant influence of the inlet boundary conditions on fuel distribution and penetration length, turbulent mixing, and enthalpy propagation.
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Energy-Efficient Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control with Receding Horizon of Traffic, Route Topology, and Traffic Light Information

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

AVL List GmbH, Austria-Alejandro Ferreira Parrilla, Stephen John Jones
Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden-Anders Grauers
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-02-0006
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
Advanced and cooperative vehicle (semi-) autonomous driving systems will become a necessity in the future for sustainable, convenient, and safe mobility. By utilizing Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication, a vehicle’s energy consumption can be reduced while maintaining safety and driving comfort. A holistic control strategy is presented, which in a novel way incorporates traffic lights, road speed limits, gradients, and curvature, as well as surrounding traffic and detailed powertrain characteristics into a single Model Predictive Control formulation. The performance of the system is evaluated using a realistic co-simulation toolchain representing the vehicle, driver, and road, including complex traffic conditions. The approach is valid for a wide range of scenarios, ranging from urban city driving to highways. Simulation results for a D-class passenger car with a diesel engine and an automatic transmission in an urban route show energy savings between 5% and 30% with an unchanged travel time, compared to a simulated human driver.
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Fuel Economy Development for a CVT Powertrain on Roller-Chassis Dynamometer and Transfer to Dynamic Engine Testbed

AVL List GmbH, Austria-Christian Hubmann, Harald Mayrhofer, Hubert Friedl, Gerald Hochmann
  • Technical Paper
  • 2017-32-0064
Published 2017-11-05 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The motorcycle and small engine industry is entering a chapter where emission legislation (EU5, BS6) is adapted to the automotive industries and especially CO2 emission is coming more and more into the focus of the OEMs, the legislative authorities and finally the end-user. Technologies like variable valve actuation, direct gasoline injection and turbo charging are state of the art in the automotive industry and have brought the efficiency of the internal combustion engine onto the next level. Nevertheless the small engine manufacturers are seeking for solutions which are cost efficient as well as simple and easy to apply. Even powertrain complexity is increasing the development efforts have to be kept moderate. Therefore, there is strong request for modern instrumentation and Testbeds which support an efficient and effective development process.This paper describes the development on an 110cc scooter engine with the main focus on fuel consumption reduction during the hardware development on the engine Testbed as well as chassis dyno . Furthermore, it has been investigated how the efficiency, robustness and reproducibility of the development process…
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On-Site Checks of the Particle Number Measurement Systems with Polydisperse Aerosol

SAE International Journal of Engines

AVL List GmbH, Austria-Barouch Giechaskiel, Alexander Bergmann
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0873
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Since 2011 a particle number (PN) limit was introduced in the European light-duty diesel vehicles legislation. The PN measurement systems consist of i) a hot diluter and an evaporation tube at 300-400°C for the removal of the volatiles (Volatile Particle Remover, VPR) and ii) a particle number counter (PNC) with a 50% cut-point (cut-off) at 23 nm. The PN measurement systems are calibrated and validated annually with monodisperse aerosol: The VPR for the particle concentration reduction factor (PCRF) and the PNC for the linearity and the cut-off size. However, there are concerns that the PN measurement systems can drift significantly over this period of time, raising concerns regarding the validity of the previous measurements, especially if the yearly validation fails.In this paper we describe some relatively fast and simple on-site checks for the evaluation of the proper operation of the PN measurement systems with polydisperse aerosol, thus avoiding the need of electrostatic classifiers and radioactive sources. The necessary equipment are i) a particle generator that produces polydisperse aerosol with thermally stable particles of known count…
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Combining the Advantages of Simulation and Prototyping for the Validation of Dependable Communication Architectures: the TEODACS Approach

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

AVL List GmbH, Austria-Felix Pfister
Austriamicrosystems AG, Austria-Harald Gall
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0763
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
One main challenge during the validation of automotive communication architectures is to consider the assembled system and more especially the interactions between the different components. We propose in this work a test and validation infrastructure based on tightly coupled co-simulation and prototype platforms. The co-simulation framework, on one hand, enables the efficient simulation of the entire network and the accurate analysis of the communication at different abstraction layers. On the other hand, the prototype framework is required for the model calibration and for the system validation on a realistic environment. We discuss further how the interconnection of these two platforms supports the analysis of both single components and entire communication networks. Experimental results illustrate our approach.
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Procedure for Separating Noise Sources of Combustion Engines

AVL List GmbH, Austria-Franz Brandl, Jürgen Veit
Virtual Vehicle, Austria-Randolf Arndt, Hans-Herwig PRIEBSCH
Published 2009-01-21 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
The optimization of engine NVH is still an important aspect for vehicle interior and exterior noise radiation. To optimize the engine noise / vibration contribution to the vehicle, a complete understanding of the excitation mechanism, the vibration transfer in the engine structure and the radiation efficiency of the individual engine components is required.Concerning the excitation within the engine, a very efficient analysis methodology for the combustion- and mechanical excitation within gasoline and diesel engines has been developed. Out of this methodology a software tool has been designed for a fast, efficient and detailed evaluation of the combustion- and mechanical excitation content of total engine noise. Recently this software tool has been successfully applied in engine NVH optimization work for defining the best optimization strategies for engine NVH reduction and noise quality improvement especially with respect to combustion excitation.In this paper a brief description of the methodology which forms the basis of the software tool is presented apart from a detailed discussion of a number of results obtained with this software tool on gasoline and diesel…
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Turbohybrid - The Realisation of a Holistic Approach for a Modern Gasoline Hybrid Drive

AVL List GmbH, Austria-R. Schneider, R Ellinger, P. Ebner
AVL Technical Centre Pvt. Ltd., India-C. K. J. Nair
Published 2009-01-21 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
The fuel economy benefits of hybrids have been accepted for long. However their drivability has not been found very acceptable. This paper present a holistic approach which resulted in the development of a Gasoline Turbocharged Hybrid vehicle that not only produced the fuel economy benefits associated with hybridization but also provided driving characteristic of a “fun to drive” vehicle. A comparison of the benefits of the developed Turbohybrid Gasoline vehicle over its base vehicle configuration as well as the later day model of the base vehicle shows the improvements that have been possible in both fuel economy as well as the fun to drive aspect.
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DoE Based CFD Analysis of Diesel Combustion and Pollutant Formation

AVL List GmbH, Austria-R. Tatschl, P. Priesching, J. Ruetz, Th. Kammerdiener
Published 2007-09-16 by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche in Italy
Computational Fluid Dynamics is applied to the analysis and optimization of combustion and pollutant formation in a high-speed DI diesel engine. The work focuses on the analysis of the impact of in-cylinder swirl, start-of-injection, injection pressure and residual gas content on the engine performance and emissions characteristics for a part load operating point. The 3D-CFD calculations are carried out with the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE. The methodology adopted in the present study follows a Design of Experiment (DoE) approach in order to minimize the number of calculation runs for analysis of the impact of the relevant combustion system parameters on the engine combustion and emission performance. Validation of the adopted methodology with respect to both the accuracy of the adopted combustion and pollutant formation models and the DoE-based calculation approach is achieved by comparison of the computational results with engine measurement data.
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3D-CFD Modeling of Conventional and Alternative Diesel Combustion and Pollutant Formation - A Validation Study

AVL List GmbH, Austria-P. Priesching, G. Ramusch, J. Ruetz, R. Tatschl
Published 2007-07-23 by SAE International in United States
An improved version of the ECFM-3Z combustion model coupled with advanced models for NO and soot formation has been implemented in the CFD code FIRE and validated with respect to its applicability to conventional and alternative Diesel combustion. For this purpose the set of models was applied to the calculation of combustion and pollutant formation in a high-speed DI Diesel engine for selected operating points adopting a large number of DoE based combustion system parameter variations. Assessment of the models' performance was enabled via comparison of the calculation results with the corresponding experimental data. Good agreement of calculated and measured in-cylinder pressure traces as well as pollutant formation trends could be observed for both the conventional and alternative Diesel combustion modes for the investigated parameter variations.
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