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Materials for DPF and its Cleaning Methodologies

ARAI-Kamalkishore Vora, Kartik Gurnule
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2565
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Accumulation of ash in the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) with engine operating over the time is a major concern for all vehicle manufacturers, with BS VI and BS VII emission norms mandating the use of DPF. Ash deposition leads to increase in pressure drop across the filter and more frequent regeneration pattern, which can lead to sintering. It can hamper the capacity of soot loading, properties of DPF substrate material and can lower catalyst activity in case of Catalysed-DPF. Hence, removal of ash is important by defining the DPF cleaning methods. Primary source of ash is lubricant oil, taking part in the combustion. Lubricant additives like detergents and anti-wear agents are responsible for formation of metallic ash inside the DPF. Secondary source of metallic ash is fuel and engine wear out. The present paper elucidates the preparation of DPF samples including coating and canning of DPF substrates, with proper GBD. Pressure drop and weight with and without coating is estimated and validated through actual measurement of fresh as well as soot loaded samples. Soot loading…
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Performance of Switched Reluctance Motor for Small Electric Vehicle in Urban Mobility

ARAI-Yogesh Krishan Bhateshavar
ARAI Academy-Vignesh S, Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2501
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Small electric vehicles are challenging in nature while designing the power train and especially the mounting of batteries within the volume available. In this research, power train of small electric vehicle is designed and it is compared with the electric vehicles. The designed vehicle should meet the requirements of urban car so that it can be preferred in urban mobility. Emphasis is given on studying performance parameters such as motor speed, torque for different urban driving cycles by altering the motor and its no. of poles. Battery pack is designed to fit under the front hood of the vehicle whereas motor is fitted at the rear. Range is estimated using Simulink and it is validated with mathematical calculation using Peukert method performed in MATLAB. It is concluded that the designed vehicle with Switched Reluctance Motor 6/4 configuration of 15 kW, 110 Nm is sufficient to meet the urban car in 2020 targets. NCA battery is preferred for range improvement. Retro fitment is given higher priority while designing battery pack.
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Review of architecture and control strategies of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Technology for Automotive Application

ARAI-Rakesh Vilasrao Mulik
VIT Universtity-Senthil Kumar Senthilkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2509
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Well-functioning and efficient transport sector is a requirement for economic and social development in the 21st century. Another side of this transport sector is responsible for a many negative social and environmental effects, like a significant contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and reduction in fossil fuels resources. It is need of time to shift to a greener and low carbon economy and for that it is necessary to improve the ways in which energy is produced and used. Other energy sources like battery, fuel cells (FC), supercapacitors (SC) and photovoltaic cells (PV) are the alternative solutions to the conventional internal combustion engines (ICE) for automobiles. Development of Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) along with other cleaner vehicle technologies like Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles are continuously increasing in the list of green energy options. This paper presents a comprehensive review on various control strategies and Energy Management Systems (EMS) proposed and developed for HEVs. This paper revisits architecture of HEVs and different types of HEVs. An optimum control strategy for…
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Aerodynamic analysis of commercial vehicle using active vortex generators concept

ARAI-Kamalkishore Vora
ARAI ACADEMY, PUNE-Saurabh Jayant kulkarni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2409
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Any physical body being propelled through the air has drag associated with it. Drag will be created on the surface of the vehicle due to the flow separation at the rear end. In aerodynamics the flow separation can often result in increased drag particularly pressure drag, to delay the flow separation, the vortex generators are used on the roof end of the vehicle just before the point of flow separation. The objective of this project is to perform aerodynamic analysis of commercial vehicle using active vortex generators concept. First, the aerodynamic analysis of a baseline commercial vehicle model is performed and same is validated with the scaled model by using a wind tunnel test. Further analysis has been done by using active vortex generators concept with variation of angle of attacks for vehicle speed of 50, 70, 90 kmph. Also, analysis has been carried out for six different yaw angles. The simulation is carried out with the use of ANSYS Fluent. The simulation result shows the significant drag coefficient reduction of the commercial vehicle with…
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Design and Analysis of Hydrostatic Transmission (HST) system for OFF-Highway vehicle

ARAI-Rakesh Vilasrao Mulik, Ramdasi Sushil S, Neelkanth V Marathe
RIT-Siddhant JADHAV, Sanjaykumar Gawade PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2453
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The development of any country depends on capital energy consumption. Due to technological advancements, people want more comfort and performance with the tractors and at the same time less fatigue and reduced fuel consumption. At present, most of the tractors uses conventional Manual Transmission (MT) as main driveline, though there is research going on, with implementation in few cases, for shifting from conventional MT to advanced transmissions. A Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) provides Step Lesley an infinite number of effective gear ratios between maximum to minimum value. Hydrostatic Transmission (HST) is one of the types of CVT. HST can improve the fuel efficiency and smooth drivability than a MT without compromising vehicle performance. The development of HST in tractor is less costly as several existing components such as clutch, large number of gears in transmission system can be removed along with reducing of driver fatigue. HST has the ability to adjust engine speed at the point of maximum fuel efficiency for given speed and power requirement. HST includes the combination of at least one hydrostatic…
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Design and Development of a Semi Active Electromagnetic Suspension System

ARAI-Kiran Pralhad Wani
B.Tech Research Student ARAI Academy-Palash Agrawal, Amey Desai, Jaya Surya Mallireddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0110
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This research paper includes the design and development of semi active suspension system using the permanent magnet, electromagnet and its control. The combination of permanent magnets is used to withstand static load of 20 kg. The controller is used to deploy the control logic and decide the supply of the required quantity of current to the electromagnets. There are two inputs given to the controller, one of them is air gap between upper magnets and lower magnets and second is the nature of the road profile in terms of amplitude of irregularity of the road. Based on the values of these two inputs the current supplied to the electromagnet is varied which results in variable damping force. The experimental setup for semi active suspension is developed. It includes a metallic roller fitted with irregularity similar to road profile, chain and sprocket connected to electric motor, whose magnitude is sensed and given as an input to the controller. Based on this input value, the current supplied is varied as per the predefined look-up table in the…
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Electro-Pneumatic Shifting System and Gear Control Unit for a Sequential Gearbox

ARAI-Kamalkishore Vora
ARAI Academy/VIT University-Siddharth Dahiya
Published 2016-02-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the design methodology and algorithm development towards the design of an automatic external gear-shifting and clutch-actuation system for a sequential gearbox with the aim of providing the drivers with easier and an efficient means of shifting gears. Automatically actuated manual transmission system bridges the gap between automatic and manual transmissions which provides the advantages of both type of transmissions. This would ideally leads to faster shifting time and provide significant benefits in the form of electronic-aids like launch control and traction control. Removal of mechanical clutching would reduce fatigue and lead to ergonomic benefit. Based on the benchmarking performed on an easily available ready-to-install aftermarket alternative, options will be considered for the actuating mechanism and the most feasible will be used to develop a shifting system. A total shift time of about 100ms for upshifts and 150ms for downshifts without acceleration flatlining is the desired output. The developed system should be usable on any similar engine with a sequential gearbox by making small modifications to the GCU code and actuator force. The…
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Optimizing and Validating the Engine Performance and Emission Parameters on Engine Dynamometer through 1D Simulation of a Multi-Cylinder CNG Engine

ARAI-Sukrut Thipse, Kishorkumar Kavathekar, Ashwin Dsouza, Shailesh Sonawane
ARAI Academy-Vinayak Jadhav, Shubham Kanchan
Published 2016-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Environmental pollution has proven to be a big threat to our eco-system and pollution from automobiles using conventional fuels is a major contributor to this. Alternative fuels are the only immediate option that can help us counter the ever rising environmental pollution. In today’s date we cannot directly replace an IC engine, so the most efficient option available is using a fuel that can work with the IC engines other than gasoline and diesel. CNG proves to be the most promising fuel.A diesel engine converted to stoichiometric CNG engine was used for optimization. The paper deals with the improvement of engine power from 50HP to 60HP and up-gradation of the emission from BS-III to BS-IV norms of a multi-cylinder naturally aspirated engine. This was achieved by varying the compression ratio, valve-lift profile, intake plenum volume, runner length, spark-advance timing, fuel injection location, exhaust pipe length and catalytic converter selection. The CNG-engine was tested on the engine dynamometer, parallel a simulation model was developed on GT-power which was in sync with the actual engine data. Based…
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Optimisation of Parameters for the Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil

ARAI-Aatmesh Jain, Kamalkishore Vora
D Y Patil School of Engineering-Vinod S Sherekar
Published 2016-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel which is made through a chemical process which converts vegetable oils and fats of natural origin into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The most usual method to transform Bio-oil into biodiesel is Transesterification that can be carried out using different catalyst systems. Jatropha is second generation, non-edible oil and can be used for producing biodiesel.The Transesterification reaction consists of heating jatropha oil with proper concentration of methanol at appropriate temperature in the presence of catalyst. After reaction, the mixture is allowed to settle down for 8-10 hrs. Two separate layers, top layer of biodiesel and lower layer of glycerol will form, which can be separated.Reaction temperature, amount of methanol, catalyst and reaction time are important parameters which decide yield and quality of biodiesel. Apart from these, the free fatty acids (FFA) content of jatropha oil plays important role in deciding yield of biodiesel. Jatropha oil with less than 2% FFA is most preferred for transesterification, generally known as one-step process Whereas Jatropha oil with FFA value more than…
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Estimation of Temperature and Velocity Uniformity of Exhaust Gases in Heavy Commercial Vehicle Exhaust System having SCR After Treatment Technology

ARAI-Neelkanth V Marathe
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Chintamani A. Mhaskar
Published 2016-02-01 by SAE International in United States
For meeting upcoming BS IV & BS V emission norms in Heavy Commercial Vehicles, most of the manufacturers are taking SCR after treatment route. Though SCR system is more complex and involves higher cost impact, an optimized SCR system can bring down the payback period to about one year due to improved fuel economy. For development of an SCR after treatment system, selection of a correct SCR catalyst and its position in the system is very important. NOX conversion efficiency of catalyst depends on exhaust gas temperature at the catalyst and the velocity distribution over the face of the catalyst. Generally catalysts are evaluated for the conversion efficiency in engine test bed. In a drive to have a first-time-right solution, a CFD analysis was carried out considering the low and high flow rate conditions. CFD simulation models and the corresponding results were used as a predictive tool in the exhaust system development process. These simulations helped to evaluate design proposals before finalizing the design. Prototype exhaust system components were developed for the best design proposal…
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